Synthesizing Viagra Chem project...OBVIOUSLY I am NOT a chemist but I did the best I could. First time doing an animation of this sort too :) This is the long-winded version for presentation purposes. Sildenafil (Viagra(TM)), a potent and selective inhibitor of type 5 cGMP phosphodiesterase with utility for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction The methylation of 3-propylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (I) with hot dimethyl sulfate gives 1-methyl-3-propylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (II), which is hydrolyzed with aqueous NaOH to the corresponding free acid (III). The nitration of (III) with oleum/fuming nitric acid yields the 4-nitro derivative (IV), which is treated first with refluxing SOCl2 and then with NH4OH to afford the corresponding carboxamide (V). The reduction of the nitro group of (V) with SnCl2 dihydrate in refluxing ethanol gives 4-amino-1-methyl-3-propylpyrazole-5-carboxamide (VI), which is acylated with 2-ethoxybenzoyl chloride (VII) by means of triethylamine in dichloromethane yielding 4-(2-ethoxybenzamido)-1-methyl-3-propylpyrazole-5-carboxamide (VIII). The cyclization of (VIII) by means of NaOH and H2O2 in refluxing ethanol affords 5-(2-ethoxyphenyl)-1-methyl-3-propyl-6,7-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-d] pyrimidin-7-one (IX), which is sulfonated with chlorosulfonic acid affording the chlorosulfonyl derivative (X). Finally, this compound is condensed with 1-methylpiperazine in ethanol at room temperature. Credits Bioorg Med Chem Lett
Refluxing benzoic acid and methanol-methyl benzoate
Introducing the Integrity 10 Reaction Station by Electrothermal The STEM Integrity 10 Reaction Station enables you to conduct 10 different reactions simultaneously within the same reaction unit, each reaction being conducted within its own cell, at its own individual temperature and stir rate. The STEM Integrity 10 Reaction Station is an excellent screening tool that can be used in most laboratories, with: • 10 individual cells in one reaction block • Individual control of temperature and stirring rate for each cell • Temperature range of -30°C to 150°C • Stirring rate of 350 rpm- 1200 rpm • Cell working volume of 2ml- 25ml • Optional attachments for refluxing, and working under vacuum or inert gas conditions • Optional multi-infrared probes for solubility/crystallisation studies • Automatic microprocessor control through a touchscreen If desired, fast heating and cooling rates can be selected, with temperature ramps of between 0.1°C/min to 5°C/min. There is also a crash function for even faster temperature changes, which is ideal for kinetic determinations. Extreme temperature accuracy is guaranteed, with a temperature stability of ± 0.2°C and a maximum set point overshoot of 0.1°C. The temperature may be maintained either through the block itself or by using a probe within each cell's solution. This accuracy can be maintained over a wide temperature range of -30°C to 150°C, with precise, independently controlled temperature profiles, and homogeneous sample mixing may be assured with stirring rates of between 350rpm to 1200rpm using ...
Refluxing a Reaction | MIT Digital Lab Techniques Manual Refluxing a Reaction Most organic reactions occur slowly at room temperature and require heat to allow them to go to completion in a reasonable time frame. Running a reaction under reflux allows you to heat a reaction without losing solvent due to evaporation and with causing an explosion. Created by Dr. Kimberly Berkowski and Eileen Huang. View the complete resource at: ocw.mit.eduLicense: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at ocw.mit.edu More courses at ocw.mit.edu WARNING NOTICE The experiments described in these materials are potentially hazardous and require a high level of safety training, special facilities and equipment, and supervision by appropriate individuals. You bear the sole responsibility, liability, and risk for the implementation of such safety procedures and measures. MIT shall have no responsibility, liability, or risk for the content or implementation of any of the material presented. Legal Notice - ocw.mit.edu
Refluxing and distilling esters
Functional GE Valve This patient education animation illustrates how a fully functional gastroesophageal valve (GE valve), at the junction of the esophagus and the stomach, prevents stomach fluids, both acid and non-acid, from backwashing, or refluxing, up into the esophagus. GERD sufferers have a dysfunctional GE valve, causing chronic reflux. Non-acid reflux can be as harmful to the esophagus as acid reflux and can cause similar symptoms of GERD. What Causes the Valve to Become Dysfunctional? - Congenital. Though pediatric GERD is not uncommon, most children either outgrow it or are treated effectively for it as infants. - Injury to Upper Chest. Typically the result of a sports-related injury (eg, high school football injury) or a traumatic accident (eg, seat-belt injury resulting from car accident). The injury causes the valve to "stretch" out of shape. - Obesity/Diet. Weight can be a significant contributing factor. - Age. As people age, their musculature can lose its integrity. For more information on the causes and symptoms of GERD and the treatment options available, including the TIF EsophyX incisionless surgery to correct the anatomic cause of GERD, go to .
Some stuff we built in a fume hood at school On the left side there is just a standard refluxing alinment and on the right side there is a vacuum destillation in nitrogen atmosphere, with in the background some sulphuric acid to dry the nitrogen
Refluxing in the lab
Science Comedy with Cosmic Ray @ San Jose Museum Of Art -ArtCarFEST2005 ArtCar Weekend at the San Jose Museum of Art I was called on a the last minute so am reading from my notes... I forgot how funny some of these were.. a few minutes are missing at the beginning....A Lot of these are originals, that I have done at National Chemistry Week Science Nights around the Berkeley, CA area over the last 12 years with the American Chemical Society (even presented at a National Meeting in Orlando FLA a few years back..."Boy it was hot at last summers ACS meeting in New Orleans..." "HOW HOT WAS IT?!" ..."It was so hot... I saw a drunk passed out on the street and his whiskey was refluxing in the bottle he was holding!
refluxing and stirring rm Williamson ether synthesis of phenacetin Org II labs.3gp UH Org 3222 Labs
Phthalic acid extraction extracting bis-2-ethylhexyl phthalate from vynil gloves with a simple refluxing apparatus, hydrolising it with a base to form 2-ethylhexanol and sodium phthalate (not shown), reacting the phthalate solution with HCl to precipitate phthalic acid (also not shown), then heating the phthalic acid to convert it into phthalic anhydride and purifying the anhydride. I plan on making luminol with it.
KEZK LaserLipoVeinCenter laser vein treatment Kris Kelly KEZK radio personality has an laser vein ablation to treat her varicose veins in St Louis MO. The treatment also known as an EVLT or EVLA treats the underlying cause of varicose veins. Dr Thomas Wright explains the nearly painless procedure and shows how a refluxing saphenous vein can lead to tired, aching and swollen legs and varicose veins.
Gonioscopy, Blood in the Schlemms C*** During gonioscopy we can see blood refluxing into the schlemns c*** in this patient. Incidentally he had a scleral tunnel that has healed with vascularization of the internal lip.
Forge Weld Two A forge weld is when two pieces of steel are heated to the same temperature and fused together with a little bit of flux. In this example, Marc Maiorana executes the first step of a complicated forge weld, where two separate elements are connected making one. The bar is then re-heated one or two more times and the same process of hammering, cleaning and refluxing is repeated until the two bars are connected.
ChemCloud Plasmoids, a time-lapse Mt Shasta, California, Friday, July 13 2012, .. these formations do not appear to be "ordinary cirrus" clouds. IMHO, from extensive observations, these cloud formations are chem-banks of drifted, prevailing wind-form, accumulated chemtrails. Catching, trapping moisture, recirculating [refluxing if you will, passing moisture within itself, in an open system] while drifting NNW. The fire smoke blew out this morning, missed that time-lapse. .... are chemtrails the "death winds" of the Hopi prophecy? .... or is it Eastlunds patents?, nukes? .... you decide, it's all about love, activate your true being, manifest your reality. Cam set at 1 second intervals until battery failure. Enjoy and thank you for watching, much love folks. music=Jocelyn Pook-falling into the abyss, caotica ana (ost)
Refluxing a sewer manhole.mp4 Seoul lost in rain
Radleys Carousel 12 Plus - Demonstration The Carousel 12 Plus reaction station is a low cost parallel synthesiser that simultaneously heats/cools, stirs and refluxes multiple samples under an inert atmosphere. The Carousel provides all the productivity benefits offered by parallel synthesis techniques, but at a fraction of the cost of an expensive automated system. For more information visit .
Reflux Distillation. From Please visit my websites at and http for more helpful chemistry video resources. Thank you! This short flash animation takes you through the typical steps in a reflux distillation procedure. (a) it considers the equipment involved (b) it looks at the flow of water through the Liebig condenser (c) it considers how the reagents are brought together in a controlled fashion (d) it simulates an ideal rate of refluxing
EVRT EVLT Sclerotherapy Phlebectomy Endovenous Laser Ablation SFVA uses the latest techniques in the treatment of venous insufficiency like Endovenous Laser Treatment (EVLT). This is an effective technology that has evolved from the often-characterized "antiquated methods" of surgical ligation and vein stripping. Vein stripping is a very painful and arduous experience for the patient. EVLT on the other hand is a minimally invasive procedure where light emission (heat) from a laser fiber beam is used to cauterize the inside of the varicose vein wall. This method closes the unhealthy, refluxing vein. EVLT is an alternative to both traditional surgery and other treatments, and it requires minimal access to the vein. During this procedure, a local anesthetic is applied to the vein and the physician inserts a tiny catheter into the problematic vein using ultrasound to guide its entry. The energy from the laser then works to close the unhealthy refluxing vein and thus reduce the tension on the surface skin veins. With the problematic vein permanently closed, the body then reroutes the blood to healthier veins returning the blood back to the heart. EVLT is a reliable and simple way to treat varicose veins without surgery. The advantages of this treatment include: • Treatment typically takes less than one hour • Provides immediate relief • Avoidance of general anesthesia • Minimized recovery period and immediate return to normal activities • No scarring or stitches • Lower rate of complications • Higher success ...
Varicose Veins: Diagnosis and Treatment Part 5: Sclerotherapy Sclerotherapy This is another procedure performed for treatment of refluxing varicose veins. Sclerotherapy is often on veins not visible to the *** eye. Veins that are very tortuous or that have many turns are also candidates for sclerotherapy. In Sclerotherapy, we inject a medication into the vein to force it to close down. An in-office procedure, an ultrasound shows where the needle injects the sclerosing medication (Polidoconol). Although not currently approved by the FDA, Polidoconol is safe, effective and the most commonly used medicaiton. Once injected, the medicine causes scarring and forces the infected vein to close down. Sclerotherapy is also performed on the small spider veins on the lower leg. This is typically cosmetic and not covered by insurance. Compression stockings must be worn after treatment for up to 7 days. While uncommon, some risks associated with Thermal Ablation include: Infection, bleeding, deep and superficial thrombosis, numbness, blistering, or skin discoloration. Risks are minimized and managed by using a sterile environment. DVT and numbness usually goes away in up to six months. In a very small amount of cases, numbness in the calf can be permanent.
start timing when rm truly refluxing Diels-Alder Org II labs.3gp UH Org 3222 labs
Heartburn and Reflux Differences Dr. Falchuk explains the that determining if a patient's condition is heartburn or gastric reflux depends different symptoms such as the timing of the incident, trigger of the heartburn, and if it was associated with nausea. Kenneth Falchuk, MD: Heartburn is a common symptom. The greatest concern that we as physicians have, not just gastroenterologists, any physician who deals with a patient who complains of heartburn is, is this symptom an indication of reflux disease, what we call gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), or could it be something else? For the most part, heartburn is a burning sensation. Some people call it bitter sensation in the chest that could go all the way up to your throat. It can occur lying down after eating a large meal, after eating something delicious, rich such as a fatty meal, and delicious pastry with a lot of goodies build into it, eating spicy food, garlic, drinking a lot of liquor, two pieces of chocolate, so there are different food products or deli things that we do in society to enjoy ourselves that can trigger heartburn. Now heartburn is not usually triggered by exercise, it can, sometimes if you bend forward, if you do push-ups but if you are walking on a treadmill or going up a set of stairs or flight of stairs, you should not have heartburn.Be careful about that symptom, they may not be something as simple as gastroesophageal reflux but indicative of something more serious that can be originating not in the esophagus but rather in ...
Reflux Reactions Dr. Sarah A. Cummings from the University of Nevada, Reno's Chemistry Department demonstrates reflux reactions.
tracheostomy done by Prof Rani Samsudin and Posted by Dr.Abdulkadir Daaci Tracheostomy procedure done by PROF.Rani Samsudin. Tracheostomy is an operative procedure that creates a surgical airway in the cervical trachea. The traditional semantic difference between tracheostomy and tracheotomy is blurred in this instance because the hole is variably permanent. If a cannula is in place, an unsutured opening heals into a patent stoma within a week. If decannulation is performed (ie, the tracheostomy cannula is removed), the hole usually closes in a similar amount of time. The cut edges of the tracheal opening can be sutured to the skin with a few absorbable sutures to facilitate cannulation and, if necessary, recannulation; alternatively, a permanent stoma can be created with circumferential sutures. The term tracheostomy is used, by convention, for all these procedures and is considered to be synonymous with tracheotomy INDICATION: the advent of the antibiotic era coupled with great advances in anesthesia have made tracheotomy or tracheostomy a commonly performed elective procedure. To bypass obstruction Congenital anomaly (eg, laryngeal hypoplasia, vascular web) Foreign body that cannot be dislodged with Heimlich and basic cardiac life support (BCLS) maneuvers Supraglottic or glottic pathologic condition (eg, infection, neoplasm, bilateral vocal cord paralysis) Neck trauma that results in severe injury to the thyroid or cricoid cartilages, hyoid bone, or great vessels. Subcutaneous emphysema Appears in face, neck, or chest Readily dissecting air ...
fluxing ps3 bga's+ clamp bending! - GILKSY as requested heres the fluxing guide using no clean lead free flux!!! DONATE IF YOU CAN!
Make Luminol - The Complete Guide In this video we make luminol from domestically available chemicals. The process pretty complicated and dangerous at parts and so should only performed by, or under the direct supervision of, an experienced chemist. First we obtain diethylhexyl phthalate by refluxing 50g of finely cut vinyl gloves in enough isopropanol to completely cover them for at least one hour, preferably three to four. The alcohol solution of diethylhexyl phthalate is filtered and the supernatant is boiled until it reduces to half its volume. An equal amount of water along with 10g of sodium hydroxide is added and the mixture boiled for an hour. This causes the diethylhexyl phthalate to hydrolyze into phthalic acid and 2-ethylhexanol. After the solution cools it will phase separate into an aqueous layer containing disodium phthalate and an organic layer containing the alcohols. Retaining just the aqueous layer, 25mL of 12 molar hydrochloric acid is added to precipitate the phthalic acid. Chilling may be necessary. The supernatant is discarded and the residue of wet phthalic acid is purified and converted into phthalic anhydride by heating it to 300 Celsius. First the water boils off and then the phthalic anhydride evaporates and condenses on the sides of the beaker. At this point a flask of cold water is placed over the beaker to allow the phthalic anhydride to deposit on it. Periodically the phthalic anhydride deposits are harvested until no more can be obtained. 45mL of sulfuric acid along with ...
Endovenous Laser Treatment (EVLT) Advanced Vein Care Center uses the latest techniques in the treatment of venous insufficiency like Endovenous Laser Treatment (EVLT). This is an effective technology that has evolved from the often-characterized "antiquated methods" of surgical ligation and vein stripping. Vein stripping is a very painful and arduous experience for the patient. EVLT on the other hand is a minimally invasive procedure where light emission (heat) from a laser fiber beam is used to cauterize the inside of the varicose vein wall. This method closes the unhealthy, refluxing vein. EVLT is an alternative to both traditional surgery and other treatments, and it requires minimal access to the vein.
Exp 011 I noticed this 40 minutes after I started the heat. Where is the benzene layer? It is the same volume and refluxing.
Absolute 2-Propanol 91% isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol) is dehydrated by combining with sodium hydroxide,removing the aqueous layer formed, and then distilling. The result is then refluxed over sodium and distilled under nitrogen. The dry IPA is useful in moisture sensitive reactions and many times can be substituted for EtOH in extractions . Absolute 2-Propanol Be careful with sodium metal.
Non Thermal Aspects of Immersion Presentation for IEEE Publication: Abstract There is renewed interest in passive 2-phase immersion for cooling power electronics and high performance computers. This can be attributed to recent research showing its performance potential compared with more complex and costly techniques, to innovations that simplify its application and to a general trend toward higher power densities. Though the thermal performance capabilities of passive 2-phase immersion cooling are well documented, the technique is not widely practiced and system designers will find little published information concerning subtler and very critical aspects of system design. There is no manual, for example, concerning practical details like material compatibility, electrical signal integrity (SI), fluid decomposition, management of moisture and light gases, and so on. This paper presents a useful material compatibility test method and explains the mechanisms of distillation and extraction that are intrinsic to a refluxing 2-phase system and by which wetted materials interact with the fluid and each other. It discusses sources, implications and techniques for removal of organic contaminants, water, non-condensable air and fluid thermal decomposition products. Data are presented from sub-20GHz SI experiments conducted with backplane connectors and microstrip transmission lines submerged in two classes of environmentally sustainable working fluids. It is hoped that this overview will ...
6. Refluxing during esterfication (HSC chemistry) Covers the HSC chemistry syllabus dot point: "explain the need for refluxing during esterification"
Akribio Pro 7 - 7-Channel Parallel Reaction Optimizer for chemical synthesizer The PRO7 is a unique 7-Channel Parallel Reaction Optimizer for chemical synthesizing. Akribio Corporation developed the PRO7 to make the chemists work both more convenient and simultaneously more productive. By conducting reactions both day and night, one PRO7 can create 100 extra man-days every 6 months. PRO7 has up to 7 reaction channels to conduct up to 7 reactions simultaneously. Meanwhile, each channel can be controlled independently. PRO7 comes with PRO7-PIN. PRO7-PIN is Akribio's proprietary software for users to set reaction parameters. This way, PRO7 can perform all key functions that might be needed. The PRO7 can stir the mixture evenly with a magnetic stirrer. The stirring speed ranges from 0 to 1500 rpm. Just set your desired temperature in PRO7-PIN. The PRO7 then precisely controls the reaction temperature in a range from minus 30 to 165 degrees Celsius. The PRO7 also conducts efficient refluxing to minimize solvent loss. You can select from two inert gas supplies and run your reactions under complete inert protection. Now we show you how to connect multiple channels to do reactions on PRO7. PRO7 is especially practical in both multi-step or air-sensitive reactions. For example, we use 3 channels to conduct the Grignard reaction. First, we dilute phenyl bromide in Channel 4. In Channel 2, we prepare the Grignard reagent by heating the magnesium solution to 70 degrees and transferring the liquid in drops by inert gas from Channel 4 to Channel 2. Then, we ...
ScienceHideout Makes Methyl Salicylate On this episode, Science Hideout demonstrates the tedious process of refluxing asprin and methanol into methyl salicylate, or oil of wintergreen.
Exp 4 Refluxing a Reaction Heating an organic reaction by the reflux process.
Heating under reflux Discover how to set up apparatus to heat under reflux - a commonly used method to heat reactions safely in the lab.
Two cases of leg perforator refluxing in systole in healty subjects
Different Datura Species By Momer Team in SIUST University Datura matal F.Solanaceae Datura metal is one of the three species which we have collected here in Syrian the others species are: Inoxia and Stramonium, they are taxonomically different as follows: These species contain Alkaloidal compounds which could vary in concentrations from species to another , the major constituents are: Hyoscine (scopolamine), Atropine and Hyosciamine, they are found mainly in the leaves. Hyoscine (scopolamine): A colorless thick liquid poisonous alkaloid found in some plants of the nightshade family and used as a truth serum, to prevent motion sickness, and as a sedative. Hyoscyamine: a poisonous alkaloid that resembles atropine. Use: dilates blood vessels, sedative , prevents or controls spasms, used as antidote to the toxicity of cholinergic compounds and decrease the secretion ( Upper and lower respiratory tract) before surgery. The objective of this laboratories is to isolate these active constituents individually using many techniques, identify them using IR and UV spectroscopy methods and finally to determine their concentration in each species. Procedure: 1.png Discussion: - We use 90% Ethanol in the refluxing process to isolate free alkaloids ( in ethanol) and their salts in water. - We use the reflux in the extraction process to the following: 1- To prevent the evaporation of ethanol from the bottle during its boiling ,ie the reflux condense the vapors of Ethanol to get back into the flask The complete article can be found here www ...
trabectome, ACIOL implantation, Descemet folds, poor microscope and tilt, insufficient AC pressure This case demonstrates how an experienced trabectome surgeon can struggle with suboptimal equipment - poor illumination (old Leica) - insufficient microscope tilt range (less than 20 degress) requiring excessive patient whole body rotation, position instability and awkward surgeon hand position - microscope has poor XY range and cannot follow the head movements enough - Descemet folds (preexisiting, diseased eye) causes suboptimal view - unicameral eye s/p vitrectomy - even during ablation blood is seen refluxing from Schlemm's c*** althouth the bottle was at max height and the incision seemed tight; it could not be figured out why the eye seemed not to be pressured properly; no blood reflux should be seen when IOP exceeds episcleral venous pressure - AC is not pressurized adequately during subsequent surgery and blood refluxes repeatedly - ACIOL implantation was performed by a surgeon different from the trabectome part; the main take home from this ***ysis here is just that it is important to maintain AC pressure to avoid reflux and this could have been achieved eg with generous use of viscoelastic.