Crossword911.com crossword help

presynaptic

Examples

Images

  • br6012f1 gif
  • presynaptic actin network appear to be a part of the initial molecular cascade required for the growth of new sensory neuron varicosities associated with the storage of long term memory Figure 5 Temporal and spatial activation of ApCdc42 at individual sensory neuron varicosities A FRETc images of a sensory neuron expressing both CFP ApCdc42 and YFP N WASP CRIB Images
  • a A presynaptic layer 5 neuron was depolarized from rest 62 mV in this cell to near firing threshold 48 mV in this cell while being caused to spike at a rate of 0 8 Hz by the
  • scheme full jpg
  • Surface projection of a presynaptic red and postsynaptic neuron green in the leech central nervous system
  • Figure 1 Presynaptic vesicles SSVs as well as postsynaptic ion channels undergo activity dependent clathrin AP 2 mediated endocytosis and recycling Taken from
  • presynaptic partners of identified motorneurons In favour of this aim I have developed some pre respectively postsynaptic marker lines to easily distinguish between both partners Fluorescence image of a 1st instar Drosophila larva RFP is expressed in cholinergic sensory neurons in the periphery as well as in interneurons in the CNS
  • 6 Presynaptic inhibition involves the effect of neuron synapse influence along an axon path before reaching its post synaptic junction Firing of presynaptic neurons inhibits the normal EPSP that would occur unless a delay in main axon firing allows this axon sufficient time to adjust Increasing the time constant spreads the current out over space and could allow
  • WebCover102
  • LARGE 10827 2007 Article 37 Fig11 jpg
  • presynaptic neuron A relative term used to identify the limited relationship between any two neurons in communication the presynaptic neuron is the message sender and it
  • 1791 0550x0475 jpg
  • CD 1063 014c jpg
  • profiles were presynaptic to amacrine and ganglion cell processes blue yellow Postsynaptic ganglion cell dendrites costratified in the three main dendritic tiers of the Toh IR cell
  • presynaptic season
  • 1 Postsynaptic response a Spatial and temporal summation See also Figs 8 27 and 8 28 b Cancellation of a EPSP by a IPSP 2 Presynaptic inhibition and facilitation C Convergence and divergence in neuronal pathways D Summary Physiology of the synapse VII NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND NEUROPEPTIDES A
  • Presynaptic inhibitions
  • 1 post synaptic fold simplification 2 compensatory presynaptic vessicles
  • a Plotting the average amplitude of the evoked EPSP versus the somatic membrane potential of the presynaptic neuron reveals continuous functions that are well fitted with a linear function
  • kstudy2418368 0002 jpg
  • Direct Agonism vs Antagonism Presynaptic Heteroreceptors
  • by chymase cannot be prevented by ACE inhibitors angiotensin receptor AT blockers would be required for inhibiting excess Ang II influences Ang II stimulates release of norepinephrine
  • nmj gif
  • modulation of glutamate transmission from bipolar cells matures rapidly and is differentially coordinated for GABAergic and glycinergic synapses onto distinct bipolar cell subclasses
  • IMPLUSE PROPAGATION AND CHEMICAL SYNAPSES presynaptic
  • of a series of multiphoton images of a live zebrafish A Lateral view B Ventrodorsal view Yellow optic tectum Blue neuromasts Red retina Green olfactory bulbs and nerves View image full size 1572x816 pixels Research Focus
  • 03t2 jpeg
  • Prof Dr med Peter Jonas Physiologisches Institut der Universität Freiburg Engesser Str 4 D 79108 Freiburg Telefon +49 761 203 5150
  • at which the network produces coordinated locomotor output In parallel I am also developing image evaluation tools to allow efficient quantitative ***ysis of 3D neuronal growth over time Dendritic growth cone of an insect motoneuron Warm colours indicate higher labeling intensity of a presynaptic protein within 300nm from the neuron s boundaries
  • This implies that recovery from desensitization had occurred Thus nicotine receptors in the brain may be delicately balanced between activatable and desensitized states O ~ N ~ ~ CA ~
  • is more presynaptic and funeral in other critics Made to factory limestone the important nende the minority and all directional years loved the sculptural kill of the protections Rolex Accuracy Guarantee
  • Presynaptic site dynamics in DsRed2 labeled RGC axon arbors Confocal reconstructions of a portion of a control RGC axon arbor branching in the optic tectum of a stage
  • kstudy2418368 0001 jpg
  • Presynaptic Depolarization induced Facilitation is Associated with a Rightward Shift in the Distribution of EPSP Amplitudes Figure 23 A Distribution of EPSP size at hyperpolarized and depolarized membrane potentials for two different pairs of synaptically connected layer 5 pyramidal cells B Group data
  • This rise in Ca2+ facilitates CICR from presynaptic ryanodine sensitive Ca2+ stores leading to a sustained increase in inhibitory synaptic transmission at the IN PC synapse termed DPI Supplementary Fig 1 Download jpg 49 KB BACK TO ARTICLE
  • A presynaptic terminal from a dopaminergic neuron depicting the potential function of
  • C Presynaptic varicosities were filled with synaptic vesicles sv A multivesicular body is also present in this varicosity Inset arrow indicates location of the electron micrograph D Synaptic ribbons rb arrows were present in the cell body Presumably they moved from the axon into the cell soma after cell isolation and as the cell began to regenerate new
  • Ribbon jpg
  • Tsumoto Research Unit Endogenous BDNF red transferred from presynaptic axons green to a postsynaptic neuron blue Chimera culture of cerebral cortical neurons prepared from GFP and BDNF knockout mice
  • Supplementary Figure Download jpg 43 4 KB Supplementary Figure Legend

Videos

  • Dance Your PhD - Jolene Chang 2009 Name: Jolene Chang Graduate student Expected graduation date: 2011 My PhD dissertation is on the subject of synaptogenesis, studying the molecular cues involved in synapse formation and differentiation that is essential for the developing nervous system. Specifically, our lab studies agrin, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that has been widely studied for its synaptogenic effects, especially at the neuromuscular junction. My project studies agrin's function in synaptogenesis in the peripheral nervous system. In this dance, I represent a motile growth cone, an immature neuron searching for its postsynaptic partner to form a synapse. It starts out as a slow awakening, as the growth cone explores its environment. As a growth cone responds to guidance cues in its environment, the growth cone in the video responds to the music with an ebb and flow that reflects the stochastic movement of a growth cone's exploratory path. The *** colored leotard represents the yet-to-be myelinated neuron, decorated with open circles to depict synaptic vesicles characteristic of a presynaptic neuron. The other dancers represent other neurons that serve as possible postsynaptic targets. The growth cone interacts with each target by dancing with them briefly before turning away as the search for the "correct" postsynaptic target continues. The last postsynaptic target is dressed in complementary colors as the growth cone to symbolize complementary molecular cues that direct the final steps of ...
  • Presynaptic Calcium Transient in Squid Giant Synapse Please visit the Smithlab web site (smithlab.stanford.edu) for more information about this movie.
  • spherical presynaptic nerve The model includes a spherical presynaptic nerve terminal membrane containing 80 synaptic vesicles (green) and 200 synapsin dimers (blue), and 80 particles collectively representing the active zone (red). Upon contact, vesicles bind and remain bound to synapsins and/or active zone particles.
  • Yamaguchi Hippocampal Model - W13 Time lapse of the synaptic memory formation in the CA3 to CA1 projection network in the isolated Yamaguchi hippocampus model. Each line represents a presynaptic neuron (data1 is presynaptic neuron1, data2 is presynaptic neuron2, etc), the x-axis denotes the neuron onto which it is projecting, and the y-axis denotes the level of the synaptic projection. Periods of inactivity are temporally compressed. Peter, MCB 137, Sp2009
  • Myobloc - Mechanism of Action 3D Medical Animation For more information about 3D medical animations, visit . This mechanism of action medical animation shows Botulinum B toxin, a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, spore-forming anaerobic bacillus. It cleaves synaptic Vesicle Association Membrane Protein (VAMP; synaptobrevin) which is a component of the protein complex responsible for docking and fusion of the synaptic vesicle to the presynaptic membrane.
  • Combined Hippocampal-Visual System Model - W33 Time lapse of the synaptic memory formation in the CA3 to CA3 projection network in the combined hippocampal-visual system model. Each line represents a presynaptic neuron (data1 is presynaptic neuron1, data2 is presynaptic neuron2, etc), the x-axis denotes the neuron onto which it is projecting, and the y-axis denotes the level of the synaptic projection. Periods of inactivity are temporally compressed. Peter, MCB 137, Sp2009
  • Synapse Check us out at In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell. The word "synapse" comes from "synaptein", which Sir Charles Scott Sherrington and colleagues coined from the Greek "syn-" ("together") and "haptein" ("to clasp"). Synapses are essential to neuronal function: neurons are cells that are specialized to pass signals to individual target cells, and synapses are the means by which they do so. At a synapse, the plasma membrane of the signal-passing neuron (the presynaptic neuron) comes into close apposition with the membrane of the target (postsynaptic) cell. Both the presynaptic and postsynaptic sites contain extensive arrays of molecular machinery that link the two membranes together and carry out the signaling process. In many synapses, the presynaptic part is located on an axon, but some presynaptic sites are located on a dendrite or soma. There are two fundamentally different types of synapse: •In a chemical synapse, the presynaptic neuron releases a chemical called a neurotransmitter that binds to receptors located in the postsynaptic cell, usually embedded in the plasma membrane. Binding of the neurotransmitter to a receptor can affect the postsynaptic cell in a wide variety of ways. •In an electrical synapse, the presynaptic and postsynaptic cell membranes are connected by channels that are capable of passing electrical current, causing voltage changes in the ...
  • Combined Hippocampal-Visual System Model - W13 Time lapse of the synaptic memory formation in the CA3 to CA1 projection network in the combined hippocampal-visual system model. Each line represents a presynaptic neuron (data1 is presynaptic neuron1, data2 is presynaptic neuron2, etc), the x-axis denotes the neuron onto which it is projecting, and the y-axis denotes the level of the synaptic projection. Periods of inactivity are temporally compressed. Peter, MCB 137, Sp2009
  • Dual Mechanism - Presynaptic Modulation Artist: Dual Mechanism Album: Element: Dysprosium Recordlabel: Symp.tom Cat #: SMPT007 Date of release: Oct 2007 Date of creation: Oct 2006 Written & produced by: L. Koehorst Mixed by: Eye-D & L. Koehorst More info: -------- My first track after a long absence, in which I was searching for a new sound. The search ended and I found it. Today it's still one of my favorite own tracks. This track represents a new chapter for me.
  • Overcome Depression Naturally: Biological Cause 5-HTP is a naturally derived amino acid that has been shown in comprehensive studies to be safer than prescription drugs for the treatment of insomnia and depression, and can also be used for treating obesity, migraine headaches, fibromyalgia, and premenstrual syndrome. It may prove to be more popular than St. John's wort for the treatment of depression and other serotonin-related conditions, as it's been shown to produce results in as little as two weeks, while the herb may take a month or longer. Author Michael Murray, ND, a leading naturopath and coauthor of The Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine, delves very deeply to explain the hows and whys of depression at the neurotransmitter level, and the illustrations of presynaptic membranes may be a bit much for the lay reader. There are also several sections with intimidating titles along the lines of "Enhancing 5-HTP with Catecholamine Precursors." But the book's comprehensiveness makes up for its occasional denseness. Murray includes enlightening sections on nutrition for peak serotonin synthesis, other complementary herbal supplements, and many online and physical sources for obtaining 5-HTP. --Erica Jorgensen --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title. From Library Journal Murray (Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements, Prima, 1996) believes that the symptoms of depression, obesity, headaches, insomnia, anxiety, hyperactivity, premenstrual syndrome, chronic fatigue ...
  • Presynaptic Nerve Terminal with Excytosis This video shows a simulation of excytosis, where vesicles fuse with the cell membrane in a presynaptic terminal of a nerve cell. Excytosis is modeled as a vesicle (green) exiting from the spherical compartment at the active zone at the bottom. Three vesicles fuse during the first action potential, which starts at 0:10. One fuses during the second action potential (0:20), and another during the third (0:30).
  • Synaptic Transmission Animation showing neurotransmission across the synaptic cleft.
  • Dual Mechanism - Presynaptic Modulation Dual Mechanism - Element: Dysprosium Label:Symp.tom Catalog:SMPT007 Country:Netherlands Released:24 Oct 2007 A1 Presynaptic Modulation A2 Complicated Simplicity A3 Stasis Lock B1 Signal To Noise B2 Almost Human Artwork By - Lody Koehorst Mastered By - Jeroen Streunding Mixed By [Uncredited] - Eye-D (tracks: A1) Producer, Written-By - L. Koehorst (tracks: A1 to A3), M. Pinkster (tracks: B1, B2) A-side by Mental Wreckage, B-side by The Relic. Track A1 contains samples from the movietrailer of "The Transformers (2007)". Track A2 contains samples from "Lost (Episode: Left Behind)" and "Immortal". Track A3's title is a reference to "Transformers: Beast Wars". Track B2 contains samples from the movie "The AniMatrix " (episode: Matriculated).
  • synapse pain modulation A synapse in the trigeminal subnucleus. Red (afferent presynaptic primary) axon releases glutamate which activates AMPA receptor. AMPA in turn triggers expression of NMDA receptor which causes further expression of more AMPA. This results in more glutamate being released. GABA/glycine appears as a cloud from the blue "Off" interneuron. Increased GABA/glycine blocks glutamate from binding to AMPA and NMDA. Microglia release cytokines when activated. Modeling and base animation created using Newtek's Lightwave
  • [elib4] Botulism in a lamb Clostridium botulinum toxin causes presynaptic failure of neurotransimission from the motor end plate of the neuromuscular juntion, resulting in progressive flaccid paresis. Note The laboured abdominal breathing, urine dribbling, head bobbing due to neck muscle weakness and tongue protrusion prior to fulminating paresis and paralysis.
  • Udaan(1997)Jai Mata Di Bol! Industry Pharmaceuticals Founded 1996 (from merger) Comtan- $420 M (2007)- Parkinson's disease Sandimmune and Neoral- $944 M (2007)- Organ transplantation The Taliban seized Kabul on September 27, 1996, and established the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. Dopamine and antipsychotic drug action revisited HM JONES, MRCPsych and LS PILOWSKY, MRCPsych Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK A reasonable goal for effective, less-toxic treatment of schizophrenia is the regionally sensitive stabilisation of dopamine function, and not the blunderbuss dopaminergic paralysis induced by classical antipsychotic drugs. This selective targeting could come about by exploiting behaviour intrinsic to compounds with low D2 affinity, by designing compounds selective for dopamine receptor subtypes found at greater densities in limbic or cortical regions (for example D3 receptors), or by modulating dopamine release through action at alternative systems (novel candidates include serotonin, sigma and glutamate receptor sites). Such ideas are certainly relevant to current therapeutics and future drug development. Novel agents with specific action at presynaptic D3 autoreceptors controlling central dopamine release may offer more physiological modulation of dopamine than conventional antagonists (Reavill et al, 2000; Strange, 2001). It is apparent that as the neurochemical pathology of schizophrenia is not fully understood, and as many ...
  • Presynaptic Nerve Terminal with Deformable Membrane This video shows a simulation of a presynaptic nerve terminal with a deformable membrane. Although the particles in the membrane do not individually represent real-world objects, they collectively model the shape and dynamics of a nerve cell membrane. At 0:40, an action potential arrives and disrupts the clusters of vesicles (green) and synapsins (blue). Vesicles dock at sites in the active zone (red). More information on tethered particle system models like this one can be found at www.sce.carleton.ca/~rhys.
  • Presynaptic Nerve Terminal Simulation In this simulated presynaptic terminal of a nerve cell, synaptic vesicles (green) bind with synapsins (blue) to form clusters. Docking sites (red) fix vesicles to the active zone at the bottom of the membrane, eventually attracting a large cluster. Action potentials occur at 0:55, 1:15, and 1:35, causing vesicles to fuse with the membrane (shown as vesicles escaping the compartment). Many synapsins separate from the vesicles during the action potentials, but the cluster remains intact. More information on tethered particle system models like this one can be found at www.sce.carleton.ca/~rhys.
  • Label The Parts Of Nerve Cell Check us out at Despite the specific molecular, morphological, and functional features of any particular nerve cell type, the basic structure of neurons resembles that of other cells. Thus, each nerve cell has a cell body containing a nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and other organelles that are essential to the function of all cells). These features are best recognized using the high magnification and resolution afforded by the electron microscope. The distinguishing characteristic of nerve cells is their specialization for intercellular communication. This attribute is apparent in their overall morphology, in the specialization of their membranes for electrical signaling, and in the structural and functional intricacies of the synaptic contacts between them. A particularly salient morphological feature of most nerve cells is the elaborate arborization of the dendrites (also called dendritic branches or dendritic processes) that arise from the neuronal cell body. The spectrum of neuronal geometries ranges from a small minority of cells that lack dendrites altogether to neurons with dendritic arborizations that rival the complexity of a mature tree . The number of inputs that a particular neuron receives depends on the complexity of its dendritic arbor: Nerve cells that lack dendrites are innervated by just one or a few other nerve cells, whereas those with increasingly elaborate dendrites are innervated by a ...
  • Mental Wreckage - Presynaptic Modulation Noize
  • Neuron Synapse To purchase this program please visit Segment from the program The Nervous System: Neurons, Networks, and the Human Brain. Our Nervous System DVD begins by examining the structure and function of neurons; resting, action and post-synaptic potentials; and reflexes and neural networks. The peripheral, somatic, autonomic, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are introduced before looking at the central nervous system. After describing spinal cord structure and function the program then examines the human brain including the medula, pons, and cerebellum of the hindbrain; the recticular formation of the midbrain; and the thalamus, limbic system and cerebral cortex of the forebrain.
  • MOA of methylphenidate Methylphenidate is thought to block the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.
  • LTP Mechanisms The two main hypotheses to explain LTP are presynaptic, in which increased neurotransmitter is released; and postsynaptic, in which sensitivity to neurotransmitter is somehow increased. Video Reference: From http
  • Udaan(1997)Climax scene of a psychological thriller Dopamine and antipsychotic drug action revisited HM JONES, MRCPsych and LS PILOWSKY, MRCPsych Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK A reasonable goal for effective, less-toxic treatment of schizophrenia is the regionally sensitive stabilisation of dopamine function, and not the blunderbuss dopaminergic paralysis induced by classical antipsychotic drugs. This selective targeting could come about by exploiting behaviour intrinsic to compounds with low D2 affinity, by designing compounds selective for dopamine receptor subtypes found at greater densities in limbic or cortical regions (for example D3 receptors), or by modulating dopamine release through action at alternative systems (novel candidates include serotonin, sigma and glutamate receptor sites). Such ideas are certainly relevant to current therapeutics and future drug development. Novel agents with specific action at presynaptic D3 autoreceptors controlling central dopamine release may offer more physiological modulation of dopamine than conventional antagonists (Reavill et al, 2000; Strange, 2001). It is apparent that as the neurochemical pathology of schizophrenia is not fully understood, and as many patients are only partially responsive or are insensitive to dopaminergic antagonism, many non-dopaminergic sites (especially those mediated by glutamate and serotonin) remain potent targets for future drug discovery. The availability of high- and low-affinity D2/D3 receptor antagonist ...
  • Presynaptic Nerve Terminal with Action Potentials This video shows the arrival of action potentials in a simulated presynaptic terminal of a nerve cell. The action potentials arrive at 0:10 and 0:40, causing the clusters of vesicles (green) and synapsins (blue) to break up. Note that vesicles dock at sites in the active zone (red). More information on tethered particle system models like this one can be found at www.sce.carleton.ca/~rhys.
  • Anatomy of a Neuron This video discusses the basic features of neurons and how they communicate with one another.
  • Vesicle Cluster Formation and Disruption In this simulation, synaptic vesicles (green) are initially scattered inside a presynaptic compartment. Over time, clusters form as vesicles bind with synapsin protein (blue). Docking sites (red) fix vesicles to the active zone at the bottom of the membrane, eventually attracting a large cluster. An action potential occurs at 1:30, causing vesicles to fuse with the membrane (shown as vesicles escaping the compartment). The same action potential is shown at 2:00 from a different angle. Synapsins can be seen separating from the vesicles, which disrupts the cluster. More information can be found at www.sce.carleton.ca/~rhys.
  • The Mechanism of Prozac - HD • Prozac is an antidepressant of the SSRI, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class. Typical of SSRIs, Prozac increases the level of usable serotonin in the brain. High levels of Serotonin are correlated with good moods, as serotonin is largely responsible for mood regulation. But sometimes, moods can suffer if serotonin levels are too low. This animation shows how Prozac inhibits the reuptake of serotonin, thus yielding more usable serotonin for receptor binding. • Prozac's active mechanism is found within Neurons, our brains' cells. Neurotransmitters, like Serotonin, are the chemicals that make communication between theses cells possible. This communication takes place in the spaces between neurons known as Synapses. • This scene shows a presynaptic neuron on top, a postsynaptic neuron below, and the gap of synaptic space in between. The three proteins essential to serotonin's mechanism our shown in yellow, while the neurons' other proteins are rendered less prominently. • In its uninhabited mechanism, Serotonin moves circuitously from the presynaptic vesicle to the postsynaptic receptor protein where it temporarily binds. • Excess serotonin is either deactivated at the synapse by metabolizing enyzems such as monamine oxidase, or retaken back through the serotonin transporter reuptake protein as highlighted here. • Here is a detailed view of the membrane bound serotonin transporter protein based on a 2008 article in Science. As you can see, this transport ...
  • Muscle Contraction Demonstration Me and my friends demonstrating the process of a muscle contraction, from the nerve action potential to relaxation.
  • The Nervous System: Neurons, Networks and the Human Brain Our Nervous System video begins by examining the structure and function of neurons; resting, action and post-synaptic potentials; and reflexes and neural networks. The peripheral, somatic, autonomic, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are introduced before looking at the central nervous system. After describing spinal cord structure and function the program then examines the human brain including the medula, pons, and cerebellum of the hindbrain; the recticular formation of the midbrain; and the thalamus, limbic system and cerebral cortex of the forebrain. Length 39 Minutes
  • Coupling Made Easy by RecA-DNA Complex Multiple RecA proteins bind to single-stranded portion of DNA, forming a helical presynaptic filament to search homologous DNA. When it is found, the formation of correctly paired DNA results in postsynaptic complex. In this movie, only fragments of DNA binding core region of recA protein (helices F and G) are shown. The structures are from 3CMU.pdb and 3CMT.pdb (Chen et al. Nature vol.453, 489).
  • Udaan(1997)Dr.Bhatia Nahi-Partner Bhatia! Dopamine and antipsychotic drug action revisited HM JONES, MRCPsych and LS PILOWSKY, MRCPsych Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK A reasonable goal for effective, less-toxic treatment of schizophrenia is the regionally sensitive stabilisation of dopamine function, and not the blunderbuss dopaminergic paralysis induced by classical antipsychotic drugs. This selective targeting could come about by exploiting behaviour intrinsic to compounds with low D2 affinity, by designing compounds selective for dopamine receptor subtypes found at greater densities in limbic or cortical regions (for example D3 receptors), or by modulating dopamine release through action at alternative systems (novel candidates include serotonin, sigma and glutamate receptor sites). Such ideas are certainly relevant to current therapeutics and future drug development. Novel agents with specific action at presynaptic D3 autoreceptors controlling central dopamine release may offer more physiological modulation of dopamine than conventional antagonists (Reavill et al, 2000; Strange, 2001). It is apparent that as the neurochemical pathology of schizophrenia is not fully understood, and as many patients are only partially responsive or are insensitive to dopaminergic antagonism, many non-dopaminergic sites (especially those mediated by glutamate and serotonin) remain potent targets for future drug discovery. The availability of high- and low-affinity D2/D3 receptor antagonist ...
  • Yamaguchi Hippocampal Model - W33 Time lapse of the synaptic memory formation in the CA3 to CA3 projection network in the isolated Yamaguchi hippocampus model. Each line represents a presynaptic neuron (data1 is presynaptic neuron1, data2 is presynaptic neuron2, etc), the x-axis denotes the neuron onto which it is projecting, and the y-axis denotes the level of the synaptic projection. Periods of inactivity are temporally compressed. Peter, MCB 137, Sp2009
  • Waltz through hippocampal neuropil Reconstruction of a block of hippocampus from a rat approximately 5 micrometers on a side from serial section transmission electron microscopy in the lab of Kristen Harris at the University of Texas at Austin in collaboration with Terry Sejnowski at the Salk Institute and Mary Kennedy at Caltech. Josef Spacek, Daniel Keller, Varun Chaturvedi, Chandrajit Bajaj, Justin Kinney and Tom Bartol made major contributions to the reconstruction and the video. For more reconstructions: Links to laboratories: cnl.salk.edu synapses.clm.utexas.edu www.its.caltech.edu www.cs.utexas.edu synapses.clm.utexas.edu
  • Cubic spiking neural network This is a spiking neural network composed of about 65000 neurons using the CUDA C/C++ extension. 20% of the total amount are inhibitory neurons and the remainings are excitatory. Each neuron has 64 presynaptic neurons and they are places on a 3d cube (here you see the top of it). In this video you can see the pattern formation.
  • Neurotransmitter Criteria Animation giving criteria that a substance must meet in order to be defined as a neurotransmitter.
  • Udaan(1997)C-193, NIRMAN VIHAR, SHAKARPUR CHOWK ,NARCOTICS DELHI POLICE AND EX-CBI www.fbi.gov Dopamine and antipsychotic drug action revisited HM JONES, MRCPsych and LS PILOWSKY, MRCPsych Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK A reasonable goal for effective, less-toxic treatment of schizophrenia is the regionally sensitive stabilisation of dopamine function, and not the blunderbuss dopaminergic paralysis induced by classical antipsychotic drugs. This selective targeting could come about by exploiting behaviour intrinsic to compounds with low D2 affinity, by designing compounds selective for dopamine receptor subtypes found at greater densities in limbic or cortical regions (for example D3 receptors), or by modulating dopamine release through action at alternative systems (novel candidates include serotonin, sigma and glutamate receptor sites). Novel agents with specific action at presynaptic D3 autoreceptors controlling central dopamine release may offer more physiological modulation of dopamine than conventional antagonists (Reavill et al, 2000; Strange, 2001). It is apparent that as the neurochemical pathology of schizophrenia is not fully understood, and as many patients are only partially responsive or are insensitive to dopaminergic antagonism, many non-dopaminergic sites (especially those mediated by glutamate and serotonin) remain potent targets for ...
  • Dual Mechanism - Presynaptic Modulation Wrongly listed as "Mental Wreckage - Presynaptic Modulation";
  • Vesicle Cluster Depletion In this simulation, synaptic vesicles (green) bind with synapsin protein (blue) to form a cluster attached to docking sites (red) at the active zone of a presynaptic nerve terminal. Action potentials occur every 5 seconds starting at 0:10. These action potentials disrupt the cluster, and cause vesicles to fuse with the membrane (shown as vesicles escaping the compartment). More information can be found at www.sce.carleton.ca/~rhys.
  • Taipan The Coastal Taipan is Australia's longest venomous snake. The maximum length recorded was from a 3.3 metre long snake caught at Tully in the early 1960s. The average length of a Coastal Taipan is about 2 metres. The venom of the coastal Taipan contains a potent procoagulant, and a presynaptic neurotoxin. This toxin also attacks muscles.