Bio molecules Check us out at A biomolecule is any organic molecule that is produced by a living organism, including large polymeric molecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products. As organic molecules, biomolecules consist primarily of carbon and hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, and, to a smaller extent, phosphorus and sulfur. Other elements sometimes are incorporated but are much less common. •Types of Biomolecule: Small molecules: oLipids, phospholipids, glycolipids, sterols, glycerolipids oCarbohydrates, sugars oVitamins oHormones, neurotransmitters oMetabolites •Monomers: oAmino acids oNucleotides oMonosaccharides •Polymers: oPeptides, oligopeptides, polypeptides, proteins oNucleic acids, DNA, RNA oOligosaccharides, polysaccharides (including cellulose) oCellulose, lignin oHemoglobin
Polymers are made from Monomers This clip is useful for GCSE chemistry, showing polymers are made from small units called monomers. I use shopping trolleys to represent monomers, then when they are pushed together in a chain, they are like polymers. It's a bit silly but a bit of fun!
The Bread Baking Bandit Yeast rises because it is living in a single-celled organism. When yeast is added to flour and water, the yeast ferments to form alcohol and carbon dioxide. Fermentation includes both glycolysis and several reactions that regenerate pyruvate. Glycolysis is the breaking down of starch and sugar monomers. As the yeast feeds on the sugar monomers, it releases carbon dioxide in the process. CO2 and alcohol fill the air bubbles in the bread. The gluten traps the CO2 and the bubbles expand - causing the bread to rise.
3RD EYE AWAKENING, PINEAL GLAND & KM-WR Part 1 SISTAH DEBORAH MAAT MOORE- melanin is a synonym for polyacetylene and vice-versa. In retrospect, melanin researchers first defined much thought "new" in this area, eg, polyacetylene photoconductivity. Further, many tissues involved in energy transduction and electrical activity contain melanin, eg, the inner ear, brain, and eye. So likely nature first discovered the interesting electrical properties of the linear-backbone polyacetylenes. Africans May be More Genetically Fit, According to Studies Attempts to elucidate melanin structure are hampered by the lack of effective physicochemical methods because, in contrast to other biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids, MELANIN RESISTS CHEMICAL ***YSIS due to the strong non-hydrolyzable carbon-carbon bonds linking its monomers www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research European Society for Pigment Cell Research (ESPCR) International Federation of Pigment Cell Societies Japanese Society for Pigment Cell Research wwwsoc.nii.ac.jp Asian Society for Pigment Research PanAmerican Society for Pigment Cell Research (PASPCR) paspcr.med.umn.edu Yuji Yamaguchi described a study aimed at determining the effects of tanning on Caucasian skin. UV-induced pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproduct formation, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation and p53 nuclear accumulation ...
The Twinkie Tower We explain how monomers and polymers work in a entertaining way....WITH TWINKIES.
Conversion of Ethylbenzene to Styrene in the Presence of Steam The Wolfram Demonstrations Project contains thousands of free interactive visualizations, with new entries added daily. Styrene is a monomer used in the production of many plastics. Its rate of industrial production is the fourth highest after monomers such as vinyl chloride. Consider the endothermic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene (EB) to produce styrene (S) and hydroge... Contributed by: Housam Binous and Ahmed Bellagi
Mechanism of Anthrax Toxins.flv Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming gram positive, aerobic bacterium Bacillus anthracis, whose pathogenesis is primarily the result of a tripartite toxin. This toxin is composed of three proteins: the Protective Antigen (PA), the Edema Factor (EF) and the Lethal Factor (LF). These proteins work together to enter a cell and disrupt the signaling pathways. Secreted from the bacteria as nontoxic monomers, these proteins assemble on the surface of Anthrax Toxin Receptor (ATR)-bearing eukaryotic cells to form toxic noncovalent complexes. The process starts when the 83 kDa PA (PA83) monomers bind to the ATR Receptor. Once bound, a 20 kDa N-terminal fragment (PA20) is cleaved off of PA83,leaving behind the remaining 63 kDa portion (PA63). PA63 rapidly oligomerizes to form a heptamer pre-pore,which then associates with up to three molecules of EF and/or LF. The cell then endocytoses the complex and carries it to an acidic compartment, where the low pH causes a conformational change in the PA63 pre-pore that forms a cation-specific channel and allows the EF and LF to enter into the cytosol. Once in the cytosol, the EF and LF then carry out their respective damage-inducing processes, ultimately causing Apoptosis. Anthrax is a disease that has plagued man and his livestock for centuries, causing it to be one of the most well-studied and understood diseases. This animation provides an overview of the mechanism of Anthrax toxin in case of pulmonary ...
Simulations of polymer blend (HD) High Definition video available! Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulations of the polymer Poly(ethylene-oxide) (PEO) at 400K. You see a time-window of approximately 20 pico seconds (0.02 ns). Molecular structure of ethylene oxide: C2H4O Molecular structure of methyl methacrylate: C5O2H8 Only PEO is shown in this animtion! Cell conditions: 7170 atoms, 5 polymer chains PEO (43 monomers each), 15 polymer chains PMMA (25 monomers each). Cell size: ~4.3 nm Rendering: Povray - Animation: Avidemux - fixounet.free.fr
Polyurethane Foam Polymer two monomers are mixed together to form a polyurethane foam polymer
Abiogenesis: The Origin Of Life Science & Reason: Abiogenesis: The Origin of Life -Best Of Carl Sagan's Cosmos (Part 14). --- Please subscribe to Science & Reason: • • • • • --- BEST OF CARL SAGAN'S "COSMOS": 1) 10 Years After: Carl Sagan & Ann Druyan Reflect: 2) Lost Between Immensity And Eternity: 3) The Realm Of The Galaxies: 4) Our Galaxy, The Milky Way: 5) Our Solar System: 6) Eratosthenes And The Round Earth Model: 7) The Library Of Alexandria: 8) A Short History Of The Universe: 9) Artificial And Natural Selection: 10) The Cosmic Year: 11) Tree Of Life - 4 Billion Years Of Evolution: 12) The Miracle Of Life: 13) DNA - The Common Basis Of Life: 14) Abiogenesis The Origin Of Life: 15) Astronomy vs Astrology: 16) Pictures In The Sky: 17) Ancient Astronomy: 18) Triumph Of Modern Science Over Medieval Superstition: 19) The Mysterious Tonguska Event: --- Carl Edward Sagan, Ph.D. (1934-1996) was an American astronomer, astrochemist, author, and highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics and other natural sciences. He pioneered exobiology and promoted the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI ...
007: Molecule, Water Molecule ft. Monomers & Polymers In Bio Class Had to play out what dehydration and hydrolysis reactions were...
MORGELLONS: BioStructure-Micelles, Dendrimers, Bioadhesives, Time Release How can all the ingredients in Morgellons could come in the same package? Hydrogels, Micelles, Dendrimers. It comes with its own super glue. Drug delivery systems involve polymer that biodegrades and some form permanent networks which use the hydrogen and oxygen from the victims own body to reassemble continually by synthetic control. VOCABULARY: Amorphous: Materials with disordered structure Condensation growth: Two molecules combine to form one single molecule, with the loss of one small molecule. Controlled degradation: The polymer comes apart gradually (biodegradable). Copolymer: Two polymers in a matrix (tripolymer-3 polymers). Cross-linked polymer: Bonds that link one polymer chain to another to promote a difference in the composite matrix. Glycolic acid: Used for face peels. Hydrophilic: Loves water Hydrophobic: Hates water Lactic acid: Produced during rigorous exercise. Ligand: Substance able to bind to and form a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. Lower toxicity: Less damage is done to body. Molecular Synthesis: Creating synthetic molecules Monomer: See Video at 1:00 minute Polymer: Many monomers attached (linear at 1:00 min) Specific absorption: Only specific molecules cross cell membrane. Stepwise growth: Monomers react to form first dimers, trimers, oligomers and eventually long chain polymers. Time Release: Drug delivered over a period of time instead of all at once in a burst.
IgG Structure As seen in the movie, although the entire antibody is composed of individual monomeric units (primary structure), the monomers align themselves in a way that is most favorable (when speaking of interactions: Van der Waals, Hydrogen bonding, etc.) This is called its tertiary structure. The tertiary structure of a protein, in this case an antibody IgG, allows it to bind to only specific molecules, its respective antigen. The antigen binding site is shown, where the light and heavy chains meet (toward the end of the "arms"). These principles lead to the proof of concept that function follows form. Depending on the specific physical conformation of a molecule (in this case the IgG), the function is then assigned. The specific amino acid sequence allows the antibody to conform into a preferred tertiary structure , which will only bind specific antigens that fit precisely.
Polymer structure.wmv Describes the formation of polymers, structure of polymers, how they are formed, how their structure relates to their properties, thermosetting and thermoplastics, monomers, polymers, addition polymerisation, GCSE Chemistry made easy revision
The Secrets of Burning Fat - A Protein Rich Diet For the full info visit - Download the iPhone App - bit.ly Download the iPhone App - bit.ly The Top Muscle Building Protein Sources Protein is the most important nutrient for muscle growth, and this any seasoned bodybuilder can tell you. Novices take heed: If you aren't going to provide your body with the necessary amount of muscle building protein that it needs to sustain muscle growth, you will not see any significant gains, no matter how much effort you put into your workouts. So, why is protein so important, and what are the best muscle building protein sources? Let's figure it out. Protein comprises a chain of smaller monomers called amino acids, and it is a macromolecule. Protein, once it is consumed and digested, is broken down into individual amino acids, and these are used for thousands of bodily functions. Getting the ideal muscle building protein is very important for people who are looking to build their muscle size and strength. Protein is not only important for optimizing the muscle building process but also crucial for repairing damaged muscle tissue. So we now know that can't get bigger and stronger without muscle building protein; the next step is to find out the best source of it. Given below, I've outlined a list of food sources that can provide you with a powerful protein-packed punch and can help you maximize your muscle gains. Eggs - One of the best quality sources of muscle building protein is eggs, and they need not be consumed in the ...
Polymer .Tomorrow's Fashion A presentation describes how does polymer contributes to fashion industry .Each polymer is made up of different monomers and hence different in physical properties. Different polymers strength arises as some monomers will form strong bonding while some might form flexible and soft structure.Also ,this presentation tries to provide some insight into what will polymers might do for high-tech fashion in future.This is part of the assignment for 1st year undergraduate Chemistry students in Uni. of York. .
molecular docking simulation: multiple ligand simultaneous docking A MLSD multiple ligand simultaneous docking example: docking of substrates FAD and PO4 simultaneously to E. coli PNP Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of purine nucleosides. E. coli PNP has been tested for cancer suicide gene therapy. The hexameric PNP has six homo-monomers arranged in an alternative up/down fashion around the central disc, with three of the active sites near the top and the other three near the bottom. The dimer subunit of PNP contains two deeply buried active sites, one near the top and the other near the bottom. We used substrates 2-fluoroadenosine (FAD) and phosphate (PO4) as ligands, and the dimer subunit of PNP as host for multi-ligand docking validations (PDB ID 1PK9). Docking with LGA algorithm found a few distinct conformational clusters. The lowest energy found was -14.2 kcal/mol with the conformational cluster where both FAD and PO4 docked to the same active site near the top of PNP dimer (the movie only shows a monomer for viewing effect). The docked structure aligned very well with the crystal structure binding modes. FAD and PO4 contributed a binding energy of -8.0 kcal/mol and -6.2 kcal/mol respectively. The interaction of FAD and PO4 accounted for an energy of -0.6 kcal/mol. Alternatively, both FAD and PO4 occupied the active site near the bottom with a mean binding energy of -11.2 kcal/mol, showing the asymmetry of the two active sites. Interestingly, the most populated conformational cluster ...
Organic Molecules Carbohydrates | Cell Biology | Biochemistry Segment from the program Biochemistry II: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids. To purchase this program please visit
Polyurethane Fun System A and System B monomers are mixed and polyurethane foam, a polymer, is produced.
Meet the Chemisty Prof and the Monomers Just another day of Brattainology.
Making polymers 10B1 give us the lowdown on how different additives affect the properties of polymers. They model the process by playing monomers. Music - 'La Cucaracha' by Louis Armstrong.
BioE 243 Project May 2009 Protein Folding HP Cubic Lattice The most impressive video on the web that demonstrates protein folding is from the Dill Lab at UCSF (www.dillgroup.ucsf.edu This video is more modest; it uses HPview (Martin Mann, Sebastian Will, and Rolf Backofen (2008) CPSP-tools - Exact and Complete Algorithms for High-throughput 3D Lattice Protein Studies. BMC Bioinformatics. 9:230.) to spin the HP configuration about the vertical while the action is being captured by Techsmiths Snagit program (). Each captured clip is of a single configuration with a known energy continuing to be minimized. HPview displays the HP backbone model using green for the H monomers and gray for the P monomers. Several of these clips are created for lower and lower energies (V=-8 to V=-77). These clips are then assembled in Adobe's Premiere program ().
10.3.4 Outline the Polymerisation of Alkenes IB Chemistry Alkenes behaver as monomers (simple building blocks) that can be joined together to form long chains called polymers. Ethene can make polyethene, propene can make polypropene etc. These are addition polymers - the reaction completely uses all the monomer, no extra small molecule is also produced like in condensation polymers.
3RD EYE AWAKENING, PINEAL GLAND & KM-WR Part 2 SISTAH DEBORAH MAAT MOORE- http Africans May be More Genetically Fit, According to Studies Attempts to elucidate melanin structure are hampered by the lack of effective physicochemical methods because, in contrast to other biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids, melanin resists chemical ***ysis due to the strong non-hydrolyzable carbon-carbon bonds linking its monomers
monomers in 2
Organic Molecules DNA RNA | Cell Biology To purchase this program please visit Segment from the program Biochemistry II: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids. DVD Description Our Biochemistry DVD starts by explaining how polymers are synthesized out of smaller monomers through dehydration reactions that release H2O molecules in the process. The program goes on to look at the role of carbohydrates in energy storage and as structural building blocks; the use of lipids in synthesizing plasma membranes, fats and steroid hormones; proteins in their role as enzymes, hormones, and structural materials; and nucleic acids use in storing information and transferring energy.
03 - Water and Carbon Oi! You 75%+ water and carbon-based life-form! Surely you want to watch this. Bryant covers the chemical properties of water - hydrogen bonding and polarity - as well as its ability to form solutions and suspensions, and also acidity. For carbon, Bryant covers its common monomers and polymers.
Peptide Synthesis We have seen how proteins are broken down in order to sequence them. How do we proceed in the reverse direction, from amino acid monomers to polypeptides?
Real World: How Gravity Affects Molecules This NASA video segment highlights NASA's reduced gravity program. The reduced gravity program runs experiments in reduced gravity environments and simulated weightlessness. An expert provides details of an experiment to create unique materials using polymerization techniques. This segment also explains polymers, monomers, and several types of convection. Slopes and ratios help explain a relationship between gravity and convection.
MORGELLONS-AntiOxidants, Sunlight, Peroxides, Free Radicals is a site where you can do calculations with different monomers, initiators and radicals in polymers. Morgellons reactions, no matter where they are in the body are catalyzed. It is a synthetic/biological/mutant mix of functionalized matter. The chemical activites which initiate, propagate, or accelerate are catalyzed. If the catalyst is removed or inhibited, no chemical reactions can take place. Some chemical reactions are catalyzed by enzymes. The Morgellons package comes with its own catalysts and charged metal particles. GET THE METAL OUT! Peroxides waste inhibitors. You can use them on your skin however, benzoyl peroxide on your skin and hydrogen peroxides in your hair and ears. Even though I am not suggesting this cures Morgellons, I am saying this might help clear up some skin lesions. Thanks for your suggestions.
Polymers and Monomers BBLC.mov Understanding Polymers & Monomers made easy.
Pasta Makes You Row Fasta! Carbohydrates are considered sugars, and there are three types: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides are mainly used to provide energy for the cell. Some examples of monosaccharides are glucose and fructose, which are monomers. Multiple monomers linked together create polymers. When two monosaccharides, such as sucrose and lactose, come together through dehydration synthesis, they create disaccharides. In dehydration synthesis, a water molecule is added, and an enzyme links two monosaccharides together. Disaccharides are for the most part readily soluble in water. Disaccharides are broken down through a process called hydrolysis, in which a water molecule is removed and an enzyme breaks apart the monomers. The third type of carbohydrate, polysaccharides, are found in starches, which are made up of repeating subunits of glucose, and are broken down through a complicated process. Examples of polysaccharides include cellulose in plants, as well as chitin in fungi and insects. Presented by Afra K., Angie T., and Shoshana C.
hydrolysis of starch Our video displays the break down of starch through the childhood game Red Rover. The starch starts off as a polysaccharide, meaning it is made up of more than one molecules linked together through hydrogen bonds. We simulated this by having 5 students form a chain and connect by linking arms. Then 2 students ran through the student's arms thus imitating hydrolysis (the chemical breakdown of a bond through an enzyme). The two students running through acted as the enzyme amylase, and broke down the starch into disaccharides. The chain of humans was broken down into now two different chains. We then had students once again run through these chains, but this time acted as the enzymes maltase breaking down the disaccharides into monomers. Thus, breaking down the entire chains until the monomers were no longer connected but were single units of glucose.
Polymers Song A song to describe how polymer chains are made from single monomer units.
Good Chemistry- Beau and the Monomers Chem Project
Importance of engineering materials - The Jeremy Shum Invent Company (HQ) This educational / instructional video provides students and teachers with an outline of engienering materials course. Learn aboute everything from polymers to monomers, to metals, mettaloids, nonmetals, lattices, and everything in between!m
ChemMatters - Episode 2: Plastics Go Green ChemMatters is celebrating the 40th anniversary of Earth Day with its second episode, which highlights how scientists are trying to make plastic, one of the world's most abundant man-made materials, more environmentally friendly. In this episode, find out how scientists are developing more environmentally friendly plastics using plant materials. By 2020, these bioplastics could provide an alternative for about a fifth of the estimated 200 billion pounds of plastics manufactures produce each year worldwide. To check out more ChemMatters podcasts and episodes Bytesize Science, subscribe to the Bytesize Science podcast (requires iTunes): Let us know what you think about this podcast by taking our 60 second survey: fs7
Metabolism Or, Anna's Tower and Its Untimely Destruction. You'll remember the difference between Anabolism and Catabolism with this playful science mnemonic. No cats were injured during the making of this video. Commemorates 2000 views of "My Benzene Ring." Thank you! When you see Anabolic think Anna builds with blocks. An anabolic process takes small molecules, or monomers, and adds them together into a macromolecule or polymer. This is a lot like our friend Anna here, taking blocks and making a tower. So, sugars become polysaccharides, amino acids become polypeptides (which then fold into proteins), and nucleotides become nucleic acids (DNA or RNA). Youll probably get an extra point if you remember that the process is called dehydration synthesis, because when the monomers covalently bond together, it releases water. But, if you can just remember that Anna builds towers out of blocks, youll be on your way. When you see Catabolic, think Cat breaks down block towers. A catabolic process takes large molecules or polymers and breaks them back down into the small. Hydrolysis (or cutting bonds with water) is the opposite of dehydration synthesis.
Mechanism of Anthrax Toxins Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming gram positive, aerobic bacterium Bacillus anthracis, whose pathogenesis is primarily the result of a tripartite toxin. This toxin is composed of three proteins: the Protective Antigen (PA), the Edema Factor (EF) and the Lethal Factor (LF). These proteins work together to enter a cell and disrupt the signaling pathways. Secreted from the bacteria as nontoxic monomers, these proteins assemble on the surface of Anthrax Toxin Receptor (ATR)-bearing eukaryotic cells to form toxic noncovalent complexes. The process starts when the 83 kDa PA (PA83) monomers bind to the ATR Receptor. Once bound, a 20 kDa N-terminal fragment (PA20) is cleaved off of PA83,leaving behind the remaining 63 kDa portion (PA63). PA63 rapidly oligomerizes to form a heptamer pre-pore,which then associates with up to three molecules of EF and/or LF. The cell then endocytoses the complex and carries it to an acidic compartment, where the low pH causes a conformational change in the PA63 pre-pore that forms a cation-specific channel and allows the EF and LF to enter into the cytosol. Once in the cytosol, the EF and LF then carry out their respective damage-inducing processes, ultimately causing Apoptosis. Anthrax is a disease that has plagued man and his livestock for centuries, causing it to be one of the most well-studied and understood diseases. This animation provides an overview of the mechanism of Anthrax toxin in case of pulmonary ...
Glucose And Its Effects On Diabetic Metabolic Homeostasis Video made by Chris Bryson, Constantinos Gioiulekas, Julia Goodman, Annie Wilcox Glucose provides energy to start the metabolic process. It is a monosaccharide that is used for ATP production. Glucose is a carbohydrate obtained from food. The starch in food is broken down in stages by the enzymes amylase and maltase into 6 glucose monomers. Then monomers then in turn are used to create the ATP. In the presence of oxygen, glucose is used for aerobic metabolism. Glucose produces CO2 and 36 molecules of ATP through aerobic metabolism. When a person has low levels of ATP their blood glucose levels are low, this is known as hypoglycemia. This occurs specifically in people who are diabetic if they have irregular meal times or over exercise. People who are diabetics have cells that remove glucose to quickly because of their high insulin levels. If they miss meals and/or work out to intensely their body won't have enough glucose to produce the ATP or energy that is needed.
Plastic from corn 1955 Plastics are synthetic materials, which means that they are artificial, or manufactured. Synthesis means that "something is put together," and synthetic materials are made of building blocks that are put together in factories. The building blocks for making plastics are small organic molecules - molecules that contain carbon along with other substances. They generally come from oil (petroleum) or natural gas, but they can also come from other organic materials such as corn, wood fibers or banana peels! Each of these small molecules is known as a monomer ("one part") because it's capable of joining with other monomers to form very long molecule chains called polymers ("many parts") during a chemical reaction called polymerization. As a raw material, corn is replacing petroleum in many industrial applications, from plastic containers to clean-burning ethanol. This clip is from the 1955 film, American Harvest, produced by the Chevrolet Division of the General Motors Corporation. The entire film is available on the Internet Archive.
Chemistry - polymers and monomers Our chemsitry homework for the 8th of July 2010