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hyperpolarizing

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Images

  • Click here to see an animation of the wiring pattern of the A13 amacrine cell 78 K quicktime movie The intracellular response of A13 is a slow potential hyperpolarizing response looking very like a horizontal cell response in the cat retina Mixtures of rod and cone signals contributed
  • from 5 86 ± 1 67 nA to 5 72 ±1 41 nA n=5 measured at +30 mV depolarizing voltage potential no statistical difference was detected by student s paired t test t=0 04 P >0 1 Fig 5 Whole cell currents in one isolated Deiters cell No inward current is elicited by 120 mV hyperpolarizing voltage potential a stands for the outward current in standard
  • at the interface Once bound the benzodiazepine locks the GABAA receptor into a conformation where the neurotransmitter GABA has much higher affinity for the GABAA receptor increasing the frequency of opening of the associated chloride ion channel and hyperpolarizing the membrane This potentiates the inhibitory effect of the available GABA leading to sedatory and anxiolytic
  • If the slide opens in your browser select File > Save As to save it Click on image to view larger version FIG 3 Effects of inhibitory synaptic inputs A Inhibitory inputs evoke a phase reset of subthreshold oscillations Injection of a 3 5 nA 5 ms hyperpolarizing current pulse
  • If the slide opens in your browser select File > Save As to save it Click on image to view larger version Figure 1 Halothane causes a hyperpolarizing shift in Ih activation and a decrease in maximal Ih amplitude in motoneurons that express HCN1 and HCN2 subunits A Representative sample
  • of current injection let s do a simulation of post inhibitory rebound by giving a brief hyperpolarizing current pulse of 0 1 µA We ll apply it after 10 msec and hold it for 20 msec Click here for the figure The plot of the membrane potential UPPER LEFT shows the typical curve for charging a capacitor with a negative current during the hyperpolarizing pulse It
  • the concept that this underlying process behind specific neurotransmitter interactions modulates ensemble activity across cell populations to promote changes in sleep wake state Modulation of electrical couplings in the PPN A Whole cell patch clamp recordings from a pair of electrical coupled PPN neurons under voltage clamp Hyperpolarizing pulses top
  • and hyperpolarizing responses Going a bit further we have shown that both the dynamic range of both responses can be fit with a hyperbolic tangent function depolarizing fit hyperpolarizing fit as described for vertebrate photoreceptors by Naka and Rushton The dynamic range from no response to saturation is about one log unit in stimulus intensity as opposed
  • then the spectral response of the bipolar cell to surround illumination will be hyperpolarizing for red light and depolarizing for green light R+G Kamermans and Spekreijse 1995 Fig 19 Cartoon to show the effect of horizontal cell lateral inhibition on the cones to form concentrically organized receptive fields of bipolar cells In A a simple feedback from
  • Hyperpolarizing ion channels The easiest chart you ll ever encounter in this course a single toxin for chloride channels
  • firing rates However in all cells ***yzed the trajectories at a given firing rate were identical within a maximum measuring error of 10 with and without the added synaptic input Fig 2 ***ysis of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input upon rhythmic firing to injected current Same motoneuron and same hyperpolarizing synaptic input as in Fig 1 A frequency
  • do a simulation of post inhibitory rebound by giving a brief hyperpolarizing current pulse of 0 1 µA We ll apply it after 10 msec and hold it for 20 msec What behavior do you expect The plot of the membrane potential UPPER LEFT shows the typical curve for charging a capacitor with a negative current during the hyperpolarizing pulse It starts to discharge at the
  • Figure 6 Heart failure reduces hyperpolarization activated current If A Current traces elicited by hyperpolarizing voltage steps B and C Average I V relation B and de activation
  • If the slide opens in your browser select File > Save As to save it Click on image to view larger version Figure 2 Example of SCN phase delays in hyperpolarizing medium A Bioluminescence recordings from three explants in control medium represented by green red and black traces The control
  • synaptic conductance changes To test this possibility the behavior of the membrane potential between spikes was examined during rhythmic firing with and without added synaptic input Fig 1 Effect on rhythmic firing of a sustained synaptic input with net hyperpolarizing effect A and B show rhythmic firing to a 15 nA step of current injected through the recording
  • Hyperpolarizing ion channels an error occurred while processing this directive
  • An additional feature is that the site of generation of action potentials is anatomically separated from the phototransductive apparatus I f one records from the cytoplasm one can see a depolarizing response to light The cells have a resting potential of around 40mV If on the other hand you record from the vacuole the response is hyperpolarizing Often one finds that the
  • also for both the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing responses Going a bit further we have shown that both the dynamic range of both responses can be fit with a hyperbolic tangent function depolarizing fit hyperpolarizing fit as described for vertebrate photoreceptors by Naka and Rushton The dynamic range from no response to saturation is about one log unit in stimulus
  • bipolar dendrites This diferential localization enables GABA to contribute to bipolar cells receptive field surround by hyperpolarizing the OFF cells and depolarizing the ON cells It is interesting that the two transporters can be within a single cell in two different compartments For example in ON bipolar cells the dendrites express NKCC but the axon
  • the photoreceptor responses and found that the responses increase in amplitude and speed as the light stimulus increases in intensity We have seen this also for both the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing responses Going a bit further we have shown that both the dynamic range of both responses can be fit with a hyperbolic tangent function depolarizing fit hyperpolarizing
  • is hyperpolarizing Often one finds that the electrode starts in the cytoplasm but slips into the vacuole which can be annoying but does show that the cytoplasmic and vacuolar responses are symmetrical responses So far so good these are the same kinds of responses seen by Lasansky and Fuortes in 1969 Fioravantini and Fuortes also studied the dynamics of the photoreceptor
  • If the slide opens in your browser select File > Save As to save it Click on image to view larger version FIG 4 Rebound spiking is regulated by the duration of hyperpolarizing inputs A responses to varying duration hyperpolarizing steps Rebound discharges were triggered only by the
  • records from the cytoplasm one can see a depolarizing response to light The cells have a resting potential of around 40mV If on the other hand you record from the vacuole the response is hyperpolarizing Often one finds that the electrode starts in the cytoplasm but slips into the vacuole which can be annoying but does show that the cytoplasmic and vacuolar responses are
  • the dynamics of the photoreceptor responses and found that the responses increase in amplitude and speed as the light stimulus increases in intensity We have seen this also for both the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing responses Going a bit further we have shown that both the dynamic range of both responses can be fit with a hyperbolic tangent function depolarizing fit
  • Hyperpolarizing ion channels Among the variety of voltage gated channels that are typically expressed in neurons The ratio of different channels and their gating characteristics

Videos

  • CUSTODIOL® HTK Solution for Myocardial Protection During an Aortic Valve Replacement and CABGx2 A note from the perfusionist: "CUSTODIOL® HTK is a hyper-polarizing cardioplegia and because of the large histidine buffer concentration, there is no room, osmolality wise, for normal Na+ levels. This is why the Na+ drops. It does not cause harm to the patient, and can be easily fixed with DUF (dilutional ultrafiltration with NaHCO3 buffered 0.9% NCL soultion) as mentioned in the video."