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  • If the slide opens in your browser select File > Save As to save it Click on image to view larger version Fig 7 Simulated gluconeogenic rates from carbon derived from protein GNGP and glycerol GNGF during the Minnesota human starvation experiment
  • gluconeogenic enzyme in germinating oilseeds 3 the UB E3 ligase and related signaling pathway that result in PEP carboxylase s monoubiquitination early in the germination process Model illustrating the biochemical complexity of developing vs germinated castor oil seed COS PEP carboxylase PEPC In developing castor beans the plant type PEPC RcPPC3 exists
  • The mammalian version is called mTORC1 Target of rapamycin complex 2 contains TOR LST8 and RICTOR AVO3 and controls actin polymerisation The mammalian version is called mTORC2 Control of the gluconeogenic program by TORC in the fed state TORC is phosphorylated and sequestered in the cytosol but under fasting conditions TORC enters the nucleus and associates with
  • the bifunctional PFK 2 F 2 6 BPase Under these conditions the liver stops consuming glucose and becomes metabolically gluconeogenic producing glucose to reestablish normoglycemia Representative pathway for the activation of cAMP dependent protein kinase PKA In this example glucagon binds to its cell surface receptor thereby activating the receptor
  • glucose via the enzymes in the gluconeogenic pathway Since exercising muscles typically oxidize glucose anaerobically to generate ATP during periods of severe exercise and because 9
  • This ensures that key cytosolic enzymes in the gluconeogenic pathway will be produced in appropriately larger amounts when hepatic glucose production is stimulated by cyclic AMP Human liver contains a second mitochondrial isoenzyme of PEPCK This is the product of a separate gene located in the nucleus but delivering its ultimate product to the mitochondria which
  • as a gluconeogenic substrate if that is the hepatic requirement or oxidized in the TCA cycle The amino nitrogen is converted to urea in the urea cycle and excreted by the kidneys The glucose alanine cycle is used primarily as a mechanism for skeletal muscle to eliminate nitrogen while replenishing its energy supply Glucose oxidation produces pyruvate which can
  • gluconeogenic enzyme fructose 1 6 bisphosphatase FBPase from both bacteria and eukaryotes indicates that all residues essential for catalysis have been conserved in the trypanosome SBPase Fig 1 This suggests that the trypanosome gene still encodes a functional enzyme Not only does the trypanosome contain a typical chloroplast enzyme but as do only plants it contains both
  • dfdfdfdIn addition malate can be shuttled directly into the cytosol to enter into a gluconeogenic pathway dddd dddhjhjhhjjj 11
  • Then 2 Xylulose 5 phosphate + Ribose 5 phosphate 2 Fructose 6 phosphate + Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate But it s actually a little bit complicated So 3 Ribulase 5 phosphates have been converted to glycolytic gluconeogenic intermediates shown in red The cell can operate in several modes depending on requirements
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  • Gluconeogenesis This course is part of a series taught by Kevin Ahern at Oregon State University on General Biochemistry. For more information about online courses go to 1. Glycerol is a breakdown product of fat metabolism. Glycerol can be metabolized in glycolysis by conversion to glycerol-3-phosphate and then to DHAP, a glycolytic intermediate. 2. Gluconeogenesis accomplishes the reverse of glycolysis - synthesis of glucose from pyruvate using four different enzymes to replace three energetically unfavorable reactions in glycolysis. 3. Gluconeogenesis does not occur in all tissues of the body. The primary gluconeogenic organs of the body are the liver and part of the kidney. 4. The enzymes unique to gluconeogenesis Pyruvate Carboxylase and PEP carboxykinase (PEPCK) instead of Pyruvate Kinase of glycolysis, Fructose 1,6 Bisphosphatase (F1,6BPase) instead of Phosphofructokinase (PFK) from glycolysis, and Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) instead of Hexokinase from glycolysis. 5. F1,6BPase and G6Pase act by similar mechanisms, clipping a phosphate from their substrates and thus avoiding synthesis of ATP, which is what would be required if the glycolysis reactions were simply reversed. 6. One reaction of gluconeogenesis occurs in the mitochondrion. It is catalyzed by pyruvate carboxylase and yields the four carbon intermediate, oxaloacetate. The carboxyl group is added in forming oxaloacetate thanks to the coenzyme biotin, which carries carbon dioxide for attachment ...