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gadolinite

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  • What Is Gadolinium Name Origin Named after the Finnish chemist and geologist Johan Gadolin. "Gadolinium" in different languages. Sources Gadolinium is never found in nature in elemental form. It is obtained from many rare minerals such as bastnasite, mo***te and trace amounts in gadolinite. Primary mining deposits are located in the USA, Brazil, India, Sri Lanka, Australia and China. Annual production is around 400 tons. Abundance Universe: 0.002 ppm (by weight) Sun: 0.002 ppm (by weight) Carbonaceous meteorite: 0.23 ppm Earth's Crust: 7.7 ppm Seawater: Atlantic surface: 5.2 x 10-7 ppm Atlantic deep: 9.3 x 10-7 ppm Pacific surface: 6 x 10-7 ppm Pacific deep: 1.5 x 10-6 ppm Uses Compounds of gadolinium are used in making phosphors for colour TV tubes and in the manufacture of compact discs and computer memory. Gallium Gadolinium Garnet (Gd3Ga5O12) is a material with good optical properties, and is used in fabrication of various optical components and as substrate material for magneto-optical films. Gadolinium is used for making gadolinium yttrium garnets, which have microwave applications. Solutions of organic gadolinium complexes are used as intravenous radiocontrast agents to enhance images in medical magnetic resonance imaging. Because of their paramagnetic properties, gadolinium compounds are used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). History In 1880, Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac observed spectroscopic lines due to gadolinium in samples of didymium and gadolinite ...
  • What Is Terbium Name Origin From Ytterby, Sweden. "Terbium" in different languages. Sources Terbium is never found as a free element in nature, it is found with other rare earth metals in minerals such as cerite (Ce9Fe(SiO4)6(SiO3)(OH)3), gadolinite, mo***te, xenotime and euxenite ((Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6). Primary producers are the USA, Brazil, India, Sri Lanka and Australia. Around 10 tons are produced annually. Abundance Universe: 5 x 10-4 ppm (by weight) Sun: 5 x 10-4 ppm (by weight) Carbonaceous meteorite: 0.04 ppm Earth's Crust: 1.1 ppm Seawater: Atlantic surface: 1 x 10-7 ppm Atlantic deep: 1.5 x 10-7 ppm Pacific surface: 8 x 10-8 ppm Pacific deep: 2.5 x 10-7 ppm Uses Terbium is rare and expensive, so it has few commercial uses. It is used in alloys, as a fuel cell stablizer, lasers and in the production of compact discs. Also used in the production of electronic devices. Sodium terbium borate is used in solid state devices.
  • What Is Holmium Name Origin From Holmia, the Latin name for Stockholm. "Holmium" in different languages. Sources Occurs in gadolinite ((Ce,La,Nd,Y)2FeBe2Si2O10), mo***te and other rare-earth minerals. Annual production is around 10 tons. Abundance Universe: 0.0005 ppm (by weight) Carbonaceous meteorite: 0.06 ppm Earth's Crust: 1.4 ppm Seawater: Atlantic surface: 2.4 x 10-7 ppm Atlantic deep: 2.9 x 10-7 ppm Pacific surface: 1.6 x 10-7 ppm Pacific deep: 1.6 x 10-7 ppm Uses As control-rods for nuclear reactors because it readily absorbs neutrons. Forms highly magnetic compounds when combined with yttrium. Holmium oxide is used as a yellow glass colouring. Its very high magnetic moment is suitable for use in yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) and yttrium-lanthanum-fluoride (YLF) solid state lasers found in microwave equipment (which are in turn found in a variety of medical and dental settings).
  • What Is Scandium What Is Scandium Name Origin From Scandinavia "Scandium" in different languages. Sources Occurs mainly in the minerals thortveitile, thortveitite ((Sc,Y)2Si2O7), gadolinite and euxenite ((Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6), located in Scandinavia and Madagascar. Trace amounts can be found in over 800 minerals. Also in some tin and tungsten ores. World production of scandium is in the order of 2000 kg per year as scandium oxide. The primary production is 400 kg while the rest is from stockpiles of Russia created during the cold war. The production of metallic scandium is in the order of 10 kg per year. Abundance Universe: 0.03 ppm (by weight) Sun: 0.04 ppm (by weight) Carbonaceous meteorite: 65 ppm Earth's Crust: 26 ppm Seawater: Atlantic surface: 6.1 x 10-7 ppm Atlantic deep: 8.8 x 10-7 ppm Pacific surface: 3.5 x 10-7 ppm Pacific deep: 7.9 x 10-7 ppm Uses The main application by volume is in aluminium-scandium alloys for the aerospace industry and for sports equipment (bikes, baseball bats, firearms, etc.) which rely on high performance materials. It is also used in high-intensity lights (scandium iodide added to mercury-vapour lamps produces a highly efficient artificial light source that resembles sunlight and allows good colour reproduction with TV cameras), lightbulbs, leak detectors and seed germinating agents. The original use of scandium-aluminium alloys were in the nose cones of Soviet Union submarine-launched ballistic missiles. The strength of the resulting nose cone ...
  • What Is Dysprosium Name Origin Greek: dysprositos (hard to get at). "Dysprosium" in different languages. Sources Dysprosium is never encountered as the free element. Usually found with erbium, holmium and other rare earths in some minerals (euxenite ((Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6), fergusonite ((Ce,La,Nd)NbO4), gadolinite ((Ce,La,Nd,Y)2FeBe2Si2O10) and xenotime to name a few). Around 100 tons are produced annually. Primary mining occurs in the USA, Brazil, India, Sri Lanka and Australia. Abundance Universe: 0.002 ppm (by weight) Sun: 0.002 ppm (by weight) Carbonaceous meteorite: 0.28 ppm Earth's Crust: 6 ppm Seawater: Atlantic surface: 8 x 10-7 ppm Atlantic deep: 9.6 x 10-7 ppm Pacific surface: n/a ppm Pacific deep: n/a ppm Uses Dysprosium is used for manufacturing compact discs, and in conjunction with vanadium and other elements is used in making laser materials. As control-rods for nuclear reactors because it readily absorbs neutrons. History Dysprosium was first identified in Paris in 1886 by French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran. However, the element itself was not isolated in relatively pure form until after the development of ion exchange and metallographic reduction techniques in the 1950s. The name dysprosium is derived from the Greek "dysprositos"; "hard to obtain". Part of the difficulty lay in dysprosium being especially close in its behavior to the far more abundant yttrium, during many of the separation technologies that were used in the 19th century. This overshadowed ...
  • 3680 Gadolinite Trail Cumming GA 30040 Contact: Mark Spain Mark Spain Team 770-886-9000 markspain@ for more information about this home.
  • What Is Rhenium Name Origin From the Rhines provinces of Germany. "Rhenium" in different languages. Sources Found in small amounts in gadolinite ((Ce,La,Nd,Y)2FeBe2Si2O10) and molybdenite (MoS2). This element is widely spread through the Earth's crust at approximately 0.001 parts per million. Annual production is around 4.5 tons. Uses It is added to tungsten and molybdenum alloys and is used in refractory metal components of missiles, electronic filaments, electrical contacts, high-temperature thermocouplers, oven filaments, electrodes, igniters for flash bulbs, jewellery, plating of metals by electrolysis and vapour-phase deposition.
  • 3680 Gadolinite Trail Cumming GA 30040 Contact: Mark Spain Mark Spain Team 770-886-9000 markspain@ for more information about this home.
  • Ytterby Road Trip - Periodic Table of Videos An adventure to the tiny village of Ytterby, Sweden, which gives its name to FOUR elements on the Periodic Table.