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equatorward

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  • Solar Oscillations The Solar Dynamo Magnetic Butterfly Diagram It is widely believed that the Sun's magnetic field is generated by a magnetic dynamo within the Sun. The fact that the Sun's magnetic field changes dramatically over the course of just a few years, and the fact that it changes in a cyclical manner indicates that the magnetic field continues to be generated within the Sun. A successful model for the solar dynamo must explain several observations: 1) the 11-year period of the sunspot cycle, 2) the equator-ward drift of the active latitude as seen in the butterfly diagram, 3) Hale's polarity law and the 22-year magnetic cycle, 4) Joy's law for the observed tilt of sunspot groups and, 5) the reversal of the polar magnetic fields near the time of cycle maximum as seen in the magnetic butterfly diagram.These features of the Sun's magnetic dynamo can all be seen in a movie of the Sun's magnetic field over the last 22-years The Alpha Effect Twisting of the magnetic field lines is caused by the effects of the Sun's rotation. This is called the alpha-effect after the Greek letter that looks like a twisted loop. Early models of the Sun's dynamo assumed that the twisting is produced by the effects of the Sun's rotation on very large convective flows that carry heat to the Sun's surface. One problem with this assumption is that the expected twisting is far too much and it produces magnetic cycles that are only a couple years in length. More recent dynamo models assume that the twisting is ...
  • Mediterranean landscape in California http A Mediterranean climate resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes most of the area with this climate type worldwide. Beyond areas surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, this climatic type prevails in much of southern California, in parts of Western and South Australia, in southwestern South Africa, and in parts of central Chile. The climate is characterized by warm to hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. Mediterranean climate zones are associated with the five large subtropical high pressure cells of the oceans, the Azores High, South Atlantic High, North Pacific High, South Pacific High, and Indian Ocean High. These high pressure cells shift polarward in the summer and equatorward in the winter, playing a major role in the formation of the world's tropical deserts and the zones of Mediterranean climate polarward of the deserts. For example, the Azores High is associated with the Sahara Desert and the Mediterranean Basin's climate. The South Atlantic High is similarly associated with the Namib Desert and the Mediterranean climate of the western part of South Africa. The North Pacific High is related to the Sonoran Desert and California's climate. The Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome is closely associated with Mediterranean climate zones. Particularly distinctive of the climate are sclerophyll shrublands, called maquis in the Mediterranean Basin and chaparral in California. My ...
  • Dynamo-driven emergence of current helicity a spherical 3D MHD simulation. Times series of a coronal ejections in spherical coordinates. The normalized current helicity JB/B^2 is shown in a color-scale representation for different times; dark blue stands for negative and light yellow for positive values. The dotted horizontal lines show the location of the surface at $r=R$. We extend earlier models of turbulent dynamos with an upper, nearly force-free exterior to spherical geometry, and study how flux emerges from lower layers to the upper ones without being driven by magnetic buoyancy and how this affects the possibility of plasmoid ejection. A spherical wedge is used that includes northern and southern hemispheres up to mid-latitudes and a certain range in longitude of the Sun. In radius, we cover both the region that corresponds to the convection zone in the Sun and the immediate exterior up to twice the radius of the Sun. Turbulence is driven with a helical forcing function in the interior, where the sign changes at the equator between the two hemispheres. An oscillatory large-scale dynamo with equatorward migration is found to operate in the turbulence zone. Plasmoid ejections occur in regular intervals, similar to what is seen in earlier Cartesian models. The magnetic helicity is found to change sign outside the turbulence zone, which is in agreement with recent findings for the solar wind. related papers:
  • Tropical Depression: Juaning,Tuesday July26 Tropical Depression TEN SUMMARY: Joint Typhoon Warning Center Public Advisory - Warning # 5 ISSUED: Tuesday, July 26 2011 - 5:00 AM China Standard Time DETAILS: subj/tropical cyclone warning// 1. Tropical depression 10w (ten) warning nr 005 02 active tropical cyclones in northwestpac Max sustained winds based on one-minute average wind radii valid over open water only --- warning position: 251800z --- near 14.7n 124.4e movement past six hours - 300 degrees at 11 kts position accurate to within 060 nm position based on center located by a combination of satellite and synoptic data present wind distribution: Max sustained winds - 030 kt, gusts 040 kt wind radii valid over open water only repeat posit: 14.7n 124.4e --- forecasts: 12 hrs, valid at: 260600z --- 15.8n 122.9e Max sustained winds - 040 kt, gusts 050 kt wind radii valid over open water only radius of 034 kt winds - 040 nm northeast quadrant 035 nm southeast quadrant 030 nm southwest quadrant 035 nm northwest quadrant vector to 24 hr posit: 310 deg/ 08 kts --- 24 hrs, valid at: 261800z --- 16.8n 121.7e Max sustained winds - 025 kt, gusts 035 kt wind radii valid over open water only dissipating as a significant tropical cyclone over land vector to 36 hr posit: 305 deg/ 11 kts --- 36 hrs, valid at: 270600z --- 18.1n 119.8e Max sustained winds - 025 kt, gusts 035 kt wind radii valid over open water only vector to 48 hr posit: 295 deg/ 14 kts --- extended outlook: 48 hrs, valid at: 271800z --- 19.2n 117.1e Max ...
  • Mars Weather (2010.03.08 - 2010.03.14) There was increased dust storm activity along the seasonal north polar cap edge this past week on Mars. Dust was picked up along the edge of the cap, and storm fronts moved south into Arcadia at the beginning of the week, and down into Acidalia mid-week. Diffuse dust moved equatorward through Acidalia and made eastern Valles Marineris a bit hazy by mid-week as well. Diffuse dust from the storms was also lofted over the residual north polar cap to make it a bit hazy throughout the week. Small, short-lived local dust storms were observed in the south mid-latitudes, especially in the Aonia/Sirenum region. Water ice clouds were present throughout the week over the major shield volcanoes (Elysium, Alba Mons, Olympus Mons, and the Tharsis Montes), as well as throughout the southern mid-latitudes and along the seasonal north polar cap edge. Despite the increased weather activity on Mars this past week, the skies over both MER rovers remained relatively clear for the duration of the week. credit: NASA/JPL source:
  • Undulatory / Oscillatory Heartbeats - Retrograde vs Prograde Wave Simulations Epistemology / Research - By: (Me) Nicholas Ellis @ /sn1pe352 Mysterious heat Studying the sound waves may help solve the mystery of why temperatures in the corona are so high - measuring in the millions of degrees - even though the Sun's visible surface, which lies two layers beneath the corona, is only a few thousand degrees. The sound waves themselves do not have enough energy to account for the mysterious heat. But the way they vibrate in the coronal loops sheds light on the corona's properties, revealing the way heat energy is distributed there. "We are able to determine the heating as a function of time and space," Taroyan says. "This will probably allow us to better understand the nature of the heating process." Concentrated spheres, such as Earth and Sun, are surrounded by layers of light of equal pressures. Clouds float around the Earth in them. The reason they float in curves parallel to the Earth is because of these spherical equipotential planes of pressures which curve as the Earth curves. Curved pressures of light act as lenses to multiply and divide light radially. (Spiraling) Light rays which pass through curved planes concentrate to a point when projected through light lenses of space in the convex direction and decentrate when they pass through the concave direction. The Solar Dynamo Magnetic Butterfly Diagram It is widely believed that the Sun's magnetic field is generated by a magnetic dynamo within the Sun. The fact that the Sun's ...