Constructing a Cladogram
The Afrovenator Tribute Afrovenator ( /ˌæfroʊvɨˈneɪtər/; "African hunter") is a genus of megalosaurid theropod dinosaur from the mid Jurassic Period of northern Africa. It was a bipedal predator, with a mouthful of sharp teeth and three claws on each hand. Judging from the one skeleton known, this dinosaur was approximately 9 meters long from snout to tail tip. The generic name comes from the Latin prefix afro- ("from Africa") venator ("hunter"). There is one named species, A. abakensis. The name refers to its predatory nature, and its location in Africa, specifically from In Abaka, the Tuareg name for the region of Niger where the fossils were found. The original description of both genus and species is found in a 1994 paper which appeared in the prestigious journal Science. The primary author was well-known American paleontologist Paul Sereno, with Jeffrey Wilson, Hans Larsson, Didier Dutheil, and Hans-Dieter Sues as coauthors. The remains of Afrovenator were discovered in the Tiourarén Formation of the department of Agadez in Niger. The Tiourarén was originally thought to represent the Hauterivian to Barremian stages of the early Cretaceous Period, or approximately 136 to 125 million years ago (Sereno et al. 1994). However, re-interpretation of the sediments showed that they are probably mid-Jurassic in age, dating Afrovenator to the Bathonian to Oxfordian stages, between 164 and 161 mya. The sauropod Jobaria, whose remains were first mentioned in the same paper which named Afrovenator, is ...
Sri Lanka,ශ්රී ලංකා,Ceylon,Ants,Ameise,Fourmi in action Ants are high speed moving an insect in a surprisingly coordinated way. About Ants: Scientific classification:Kingdom: Animalia,Phylum: Arthropoda,Class: Insecta,Order: Hymenoptera,Suborder: Apocrita,Superfamily: Vespoidea,Family: Formicidae,Latreille, 1809 Subfamilies:Aenictogitoninae,Agroecomyrmecinae,Amblyoponinae (incl. "Apomyrminae")Aneuretinae,Cerapachyinae,Dolichoderinae,Ecitonina(incl. "Dorylinae"and "Aenictinae"),Ectatomminae,Formicinae,Heteroponerinae,Leptanillinae,Leptanilloidinae,Martialinae,Myrmeciinae,incl. "Nothomyrmeciinae"),Myrmicinae,Paraponerinae,Ponerinae,Proceratiinae,Pseudomyrmecinae.Cladogram of ant subfamilies,Martialinae,Leptanillinae,Amblyoponinae,Paraponerinae,Agroecomyrmecinae,Ponerinae,Proceratiinae,Ecitoninae,Aenictinae,Dorylini,Aenictogitoninae,Cerapachyinae*,Leptanilloidinae,Dolichoderinae,Aneuretinae,Pseudomyrmecinae,Myrmeciinae,Ectatomminae,Heteroponerinae,Myrmicin,Formicinae.A phylogeny of the extant ant subfamilies. *Cerapachyinae is paraphyletic.Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae ( /fɔrˈmɪsɪdiː/) and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the mid-Cretaceous period between 110 and 130 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. More than 12500 out of an estimated total of 22000 species have been classified.They are easily identified by their elbowed antennae and a distinctive node-like structure that forms a slender waist ...
Lesson 16/16: Through Ancient Eyes If we assume that God's method of inspiration allowed the biblical authors to operate from within the common scientific worldview of their day, how does knowing this affect our views of biblical authority, inerrancy and infallibility? Does the principle of accommodation allow modern science to operate freely, or is it a dangerous idea that ultimately chips away at our faith in the Scriptures?
Evolution Rap AP biology video.... Instrumental used: Just a heads up, we can't rap..... Lyrics [Chorus]: Evolution Oh, it happened to you My ancestors had traits that helped them survive Evolution, it helped us way back But now we're harmed by those traits of the past Have you ever been sick I have, with diabetes My doc gave me insulin to break down the glucose All this sugar in my blood No it didn't just happen It was passed to me, all thanks to genetics Never guess where it just came from, My ancestors They used it to survive the cold, unlike the rest All the sugar in their blood Meant their freezing point was lower And the ice crystals in their blood were less of a danger Oh hey, didn't see you there Guess what I just did Kinda sucks, pricked my finger, saw my sugar at it's highest Well sure, must have helped all those who came before But it sucks for us now, Now sing Evolution, oh it happened to you My ancestors had traits that helped them survive I wanna tell the world So the process powering all of this massive change Is of course, natural selection in our day to day And for the individuals out there, You just got to reproduce Just as long as you are fit, mother nature will choose And what every form of life wants To the eye it can't be seen Cuz in the end just check the cladogram, inheritance of genes Mr. Charles Darwin, "Origin of Species" does he say, Evolution equals mechanism in our DNA So this one's dedicated to man's past Least but not last, variation has ...
CladiBubble - Manipulation of 3D tree of life This work is a part of the ANR CARE project www.careproject.fr For further informations www.irit.fr
Identifying Novel Proteins Across Genomes: Brucella Part 2 PATRIC Multi-genome Comparison Use Case Featuring Protein Families and Visualizations. Part 2 of 2.
Biology 1B - Lecture 24: Phylogenetics General Biology
Constructing a Cladogram
Caniform Carnivore Cladogram Construction Part III of the 'Falsifying Phylogeny' series; This one explains how one must first address the indications of evolutionary phylogeny rather than ignoring all aspects of common ancestry altogether, (as Ray Comfort did) and instead proposing some weird straw-man parody of evolution in which no ancestry of any kind is even involved. ~ Here is the list of examples used in the Carnivora skulls image: (1) St. Bernard (2) Collie (3) Boston terrier (4) maned wolf (5) Asian palm civet (6) Arctic fox (7) bull terrier (8) chow chow (9) spotted hyena (10) badger (11) lion (12) black-backed jackal (13) Coatimundi (14) lycaon (15) American black bear (16) Great Dane (17) raccoon dog (18) California sea lion (19) Chihuahua (20) dire wolf ~ Source studies: Multiple and Ancient Origins of the Domestic Dog ~ The source of the Canine cladogram: ~ Source of my own cladogram: Mitogenomic ***yses of caniform relationships ~ Molecular Phylogeny of the Carnivora (Mammalia): Assessing the Impact of Increased Sampling on Resolving Enigmatic Relationships
The Endangered Wolf Center Founded in 1971 by Marlin and Carol Perkins, today the Endangered Wolf Center is the premier US facility for endangered wolf species. The center has been credited for literally saving two species (the Mexican gray wolf and the red wolf) from extinction. Please join us in continuing the mission. Go to to join the fight and visit our Endangered Wolf Center Facebook page for pictures, stories and more.
(2/3) The light of evolution: What would be lost What good is evolution? Do we really need it? Are there any applications for it? Does it have any bearing on human health? Why would a doctor or engineer or teacher or politician need to understand it, beyond the need to satisfy an educational directive? Does it really affect our lives? Useful or interesting links: Understanding Evolution (basic material) evolution.berkeley.edu Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History (fantastic videos) www.peabody.yale.edu "Nothing Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution" by Theodosius Dobzhansky, 1973 Francisco Ayala debate with William Lane Craig Journal articles for further reading: Free full-text article on XMRV's role in prostate tumor Free full-text "Genomics meets HIV-1" on HIV vaccine targets enabled by genomic research m.nih.gov How HIV-1 research is being used to treat FIV in cats Selective Sweeps in the Human Genome: A Starting Point for Identifying Genetic Differences Between Modern Humans and Chimpanzees Quantitative Trait Loci mapping of crops
Holy Hallucinations 28 My 'favorite' Youtube creationists at the PPSimmons channel have been at it again so, as per my vow, here is my response. Apologies for how long this video is. I'd initially thought it was going to be a short one, but it was only as I read PP's "sources" and did a little research I realized the magnitude of the ***-heap underlying this seemingly innocuous little piece of typical creationist propaganda. As it is there were a number of areas I would also have liked to gone into in more detail, including how Carl can feel that a change of 18 million years in a phylogeny is significant when he actually believes the world to be 6000 years old, and a deeper explanation of why science can only be as accurate as the data set it has to work with and why this means it is critical that it is able to modify hypotheses and theories in the light of new observations. I have to say that putting together something this long has been very draining, so it's not something I'm planning to do again for a long, long time. Though, having said that, the record of creationist bull***tery seems to suggest that it is bound to happen again sometime (but hopefully not too soon). PP's video amazingly still has comments enabled as of this upload, so it will be interesting to see how long it will be before they take down the comments section on this one. You can find this particular tele-visual turd here: Tas Wanker's 'article' can be found here: Jonathan Farti's 'article ...
Biology: Building a Cladogram for full video
Phylogeny Challenge This is the ultimate challenge to be answered by anyone hoping to promote creationism; the identification of "created kinds"? Any intrepid creationist who attempts to meet this challenge will instead discover a truth which John Muir once described thus: "When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe." Included in this video is one cladogram everyone asks about but few can find. So here it is:
Hamsters and Parrots and Snakes Oh My Hamsters and Parrots and Snakes Oh My: Using Evolutionary Relationship to Guide Categorical Inferences Laura R. Novick, Dept. of Psychology & Human Dev. Peabody College, reports the results of three experiments investigating students inferences about living things. In contrast to previous research on categorical inferences, the present research adopts a perspective from evolutionary biology. In all experiments, subjects were told about two (hypothetical) enzymes that help to regulate cell function in two different taxa (eg, X in the garter snake and Y in the badger). Then they were asked whether a third taxon (eg, the robin) uses the same enzyme as Taxon 1 or Taxon 2. In Experiments 1 and 2, which involved college students with varying backgrounds in biology, there were two types of critical triads of taxa: (a) amphibians, reptiles, and mammals (reptiles are evolutionarily more closely related to mammals than to amphibians) and (b) plants, fungi, and animals (fungi are evolutionarily more closely related to animals than to plants). In Experiment 3, which involved 10th graders, a third type of critical triad was added: (c) mammals, birds, and canonical reptiles (snakes and crocodilians; birds are reptiles also). In all experiments, some subjects were given a cladogram (a hierarchical branching diagram) depicting the correct evolutionary relationships among the three taxa prior to answering each inference question; other subjects answered the questions based solely on their ...
Cross spider at night The cross spider Araneus diadematus (=European garden spider) belongs to the Araneae, which represent -besides the mites (Acari)- the biggest monophyletic group within the Arachnida. Herein the cross spider is an orb-weaver spider (Araneoidea, a subgroup of the Entelegynae, which are characterized by a complex female genital opening consisting of separate copulation openings and a separate egg deposition opening). Phylogenetic cladograms are used to reconstruct the systematic positions of animal species. These trees can demonstrate how character changes evolved step by step. New characters are called apomorphies. The complex female genital opening is an apomorphy of the Entelegynae. The cross spider's orb --web is a typical orb-weaver -spider-web with a more or less two- dimensional structure. The web is always constructed the same way, beginning with a y-shaped base frame. Finally radial spokes and a capture spiral with a sticky capturing thread (=ecribellate) complete the orb web. The spider rebuilds the web every night again, needing about one hour for the whole procedure. The web is capturing structure, "residence" for the spider, place, where copulation happens and eggs finally are deposited.
Van der Strop Saga (Episode 1-2) Episode 2 "My Cladogram Is Better Than Your Cladogram" The Van der Strop cadre is in Canada to retrieve Pavelkay who was doing anthropology ***s in the graveyards of the Frozen Tundra. Little did he know that his empirical survey would disturb a terror from their past: the Ginger Horse***.
Biological Sequence ***ysis II (2010) January 26, 2010. Andreas Baxevanis, Ph.D. Current Topics in Genome ***ysis 2010 Handout: www.genome.gov More: www.genome.gov
Foundations of Feliforme Families Part IV of the 'Falsifying Phylogeny' series shows how the basal progenitors of now dramatically different "kinds" are still apparently inseparable from sister species and parent clades. Felid cladogram from Scientific American: farm2 Massive collaborative ***ysis of the Molecular Phylogeny of Carnivora: Another cited source, an explanation of transitional forms and taxonomic trends by a Christian evolutionist, Prof. Keith B. Miller Ph.D. www.asa3.org
I'm on the Beagle (I'm on a Boat Parody) My Friend and I did this for Extra Credit in Biology Lyrics- (shawtay) Aw snap, get your enzymes ready they're about to get bonded Everybody in Biology hit the website and work on your jeopardy review we runnin' this let's go I'm on a boat, no need for coats gonna check out all those finches to see who relates the most I'm on a boat, It's gonna float all the way across the ocean to the sweet Galapagos My cells are goin through mitosis take a look at me straight floatin' with osmosis in my own body Active transport usin up my ATP you can't stop my mother functions goin on in me Take a picture trick. I'm a chordate We bendin our backbones cause we are vertebrates I got my spinal column and my notochord I'm flippin burgers cause my Dorsal links my nerves and bones I used to breathe in water, with Pharyngeal slits I was splashin, usin my cool post *** tail But I grew out of it, and now it's flat as a rail It's evolution coach chvatal an it won't ever fail I've got a cladogram It shows some change and I'm bein classified now as a mammal man I am king of the world, with a heart 4 chambered It's only me and the birds, we are complex members Get on up man, evolution is real! Got hair, mammary glands and middle ear bones Got skillz climbin trees with my bendy thumbs Can stand up straight good posture with my backbone I can make my own heat. I'm an endotherm Hey ma, if you could see me now Adaptations gonna show us how to survive and get all kinds of chow With Coach Chvatal, all ...
MIME - Exploring a tree of life from its inside (Cubtile version) This work is a part of the ANR CARE project www.careproject.fr For further informations www.irit.fr
MIME - Exploring a tree of life from its inside (Flashlight version) This work is a part of the ANR CARE project www.careproject.fr For further informations www.irit.fr
Classification_Lecture.mov A lecture on how to construct a branching diagram (cladogram).
Evolution vs. Intelligent Design: Does Homology = Relatedness? Paternity tests use inherited DNA markers as a way to determine relatedness. So does phylogenetics. If you want to learn to make your own phylograms: Here's some resources for more info on phylograms. The Wikipedia article on phylogenetic trees Science and Sensibility does a phylogenetic tree of science blogs science_ The Tree of Life web project, based on 16S rDNA sequences Here's a poster you can order if you love phylogenetics as much as I do. A dendrogram is a broad term for the diagrammatic representation of a phylogenetic tree. A cladogram is a tree formed using cladistic methods. This type of tree only represents a branching pattern, ie, its branch lengths do not represent time. A phylogram is a phylogenetic tree that explicitly represents number of character changes through its branch lengths. An ultrametric tree or chronogram is a phylogenetic tree that explicitly represents evolutionary time through its branch lengths.
The Evolution of Vertebrates American Museum of Natural History 4th floor, Wallach Orientation Center Video. Pics on /amnh4
14 - Taxonomy Bryant captures binomial nomenclature, the classification of species, and cladograms all together in this lesson!
CladiCube - Input with the CubTile Manipulation of cladistic 3D trees using the CubTile input device. More details at www.careproject.fr
WTF Biology AP Biology project- A collection of MC's rap about the different phyla in the animal kingdom while a chorus guy sings about evolution. Inspired by Jon Lajoie's WTF Collective. LYRICS: PORIFERA There's 9000 species who be procreatin a***ual, ***ual or even regeneratin I reproduce by archaeocytes called capsules I'm hermaphroditic too but that's more ***ual I've got no tissue systems, who needs them anyway my mesophyll keeps my ecto & endoderm seperately I take in food through my calcium carbonate My archaeocytes pick it up and let me know that I've ate CNIDERIA Yo, I'm MC Cnideria, Wha wha? I come in two forms polyp & medusa I be radially symmetrical And gastrovascularical I've got stinging cnidocysts If you swim on by, you won't be missed 2 cell layers is what I got Your mesoderm isn't hot. KEEP YOUR MESOGLEA LOOSE! *basal shuffle* CHORUS GUY 1 And now we'll sing about evolution and taxonomy We'll show you the right classifications of the phylums that you see We all evolved from a single ancestor Choanoflagellates Then the species split apart for forever it was our fate. RAP BATTLE MC PLATYHELMINTHES MC Platyhelminthes, that's me I'm a flatworm and I'm phlyum three! I'm an acoelomate, no cavity here Bilateral symmetry is my body's plan, never fear! Germ layers? Yeah, I'm tripoblastic Excretion is done through flame cells- that's fantastic! Free living & parasitic are how I like to roll Yeah that's me creepin in the chicken in yo bowl! Respiration is done through diffusion ...
Phylogenetics 006 - Phylogenetics Paul Andersen discusses the specifics of phylogenetics. The evolutionary relationships of organisms are discovered through both morphological and molecular data. A specific type of phylogenetic tree, the cladogram, is also covered.
Chimpanzees -- Our nearest relatives Many people use to differ between humans and animals. But the truth is: We are animals. More exactly it must be stated: We belong to the Great apes. This is due to a common ancestor that we share with the chimpanzees. This ancestor evolved new characters, which remained in both the chimpanzees and the humans: eg a more human-like well developed facial expression, human-like fine motor skills of the hands, a social behavior, more complex and human-like than in other Great apes. The chimpanzees consist of two species: the chimps (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobos (Pan paniscus). They are sisterspecies and together represent the group, which is named "chimpanzees". The chimpanzees are the recent sistergroup of the humans (Homo sapiens). All characters differing H. sapiens from other great Apes evolved step by step on the human stem line, beginning with the ancestor that we shared with the chimpanzees. Mensch und Tier werden in der Bevölkerung häufig als sehr unterschiedlich wahrgenommen. Und doch sind wir nichts als Tiere: Wir gehören zu den Affen (Primaten), genaugenommen zu den Menschenaffen (Hominidae). Innerhalb der Menschenaffen sind wir nächst verwandt mit den Schimpansen, die unsere Schwestergruppe bilden. Das bedeutet: Mensch und Schimpansen haben einen gemeinsamen Vorfahren. Es ist zu beachten, dass zwei Schimpansenarten existieren. Gemeiner Schimpanse und Bonobo sind Schwesterarten. Gemeinsam bilden sie die Gruppe der Schimpansen. Die gemeinsame Stammart von ...
Juvenile Bird Spiders (Theraphosidae) Bird spiders, in America also called "tarantulas", represent a subgroup of the Mygalomorphae. Members of this bigger group of bird spider-related Araneae branch off basically in the tree (=phylogenetic cladogram) of the spiders. The monophyly of the Mygalomorphae is obviously still questionable (do all species go back to one single stem species, or do they go back to different stem species in this basic area of the tree = paraphyletic?). Due to the basic position in the tree, the bird spiders retained some older characters. The chewing mouthparts (=chelicerae) are claw shaped (and not scissor-shaped as in other groups of Arachnida). This is a newly evolved character of the stem species of all Araneae. This stem species had orthognathic chelicerae, being directed downwards and running parallel to each other. The bird spiders retained this character. Later in the stem line of the ("higher") spiders, the chelicerae-shape was modified into a labidognathic position (=chelicerae distorted against each other). Bird spiders possess venom glands. This is not an apomorphy of all Araneae! The Mesothelae as first (recent) branch in the tree lack venom glands primarily, which evolved not until later in the stem line of the Spiders. The size of bird spiders represents an old ("primitive") character. It was reduced later on the stem line for example accompanied by the evolution of orb webs. The presented two juveniles of Grammostola rosea are about 1.5 years old. They are used for ...
CladiCube - Guiding the user with video about the functionality of the Cubtile Manipulation of cladistic 3D trees using the CubTile input device. More details at www.careproject.fr
Lesson 15/16: Concordism vs. Accommodation Most Christians assume that the Bible speaks authoritatively on scientific matters. However, careful examination of the biblical text reveals that the human authors were operating from within the conceptual framework of Ancient Near-Eastern science. How does understing this affect our interpretations of Scripture today?
How a student study in UC Berkeley um..this is not meant to be a funny/interesting clip or anything... I am constructing a cladogram for my bio1AL lab exam tomorrow. the hardest class i have taken so far in UC Berkeley...lol. its 1 am 12/7, and test is 2moro at 3ish pm~~wish me luck! this is just my study strategy...don't know if it works for everyone~~:]
The Joy of Phylogeny: How To Make Your Own Phylogram Warning! This is a how-to video on how to construct phylogenetic trees using public domain online tools. The content is strictly scientific, and may be daunting to creationists or Discovery Institute Fellows. If you aren't interested in phylogenetics, this may be a bit dry. Some of the websites featured in the video: European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) ClustalW2 National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) m.nih.gov NCBI Homologene m.nih.gov Good luck making your own phylograms! Here's a list of genes that are highly conserved to get you started: Actin, beta Actin, alpha 18S rDNA GAPDH UBC1 catalase APRT HPRT RPOB NF-kappaB EGF and EGFR all the tyrosine kinases transducin
ASSinine Creationist Argument "Same Evidence"
Evolution - Greatly Animated Presentation Explaining the Biological factor of Evolution Learn about evolution in a thrilling animated video with familiar background music... Subscribe, Rate, Comment and visit my website! About: This Video is all about the biological factor of evolution. Evolution is simply the way species acquire favorable traits over long periods of time in a population. We have Charles Darwin to thank for his theory of Evolution and the work he did to prove it. All we have to do is understand it and we can to that by watching this animated video on evolution itself. -----Summary of Darwin's Theory of Evolution---- • A species is a population of organisms that interbreeds and has fertile offspring. How do organisms adapt? • Living organisms have descended with modifications from species that lived before them. • What is Natural selection explains how this evolution has happened: How does Natural Selection work? —More organisms are produced than can survive because of limited resources. —Organisms struggle for the necessities of life; there is competition for resources. How did life Start? — Individuals within a population vary in their traits; some of these traits are heritable -- passed on to offspring. — Some variants are better adapted to survive and reproduce under local conditions than others. — Better-adapted individuals (the "fit enough") are more likely to survive and reproduce, thereby passing on copies of their genes to the next generation. — Species whose individuals are best adapted survive; others become ...
origami Origami as a method for describing evolution in animals. Many different animals are folded with emphasis on the bases each much derive from and the types of folds required to create different parts of the animal.
Pre-AP Biology - Unit 7.2 - Cladograms & Dichotomous Keys.mp4 Mr. Bradstreet and Coach Hikel explain cladistics and how to interpret a cladogram / phylogenetic tree. The purpose and use of dichotomous keys are also discussed.
Biorap A Rap I made for my biology class... All of the organisms share a basic unity That you can see in Ecosystems and communities Organize, Reproduce, Homeostasis Use of Energy, evolution, stimuli makes this An Organism, Each very diverse Just like my rhymes in every single verse In every single organism cells are a must If you dont have them youre probably a virus Galapagos finches share many traits But they also may differ in what they eat and how they mate So listen all of you homeosapiens down there Your different from bacteria but many traits you share Biology The best science youll agree A biologist I will be Cahill has made me see Homeostasis, its how your cells keeps stable Conditions are steady, theyre not unable The coldest of wheather, nothing shivering cant fix Your temperature remains at 98.6 Insulin controls glucose levels from your eaties If it gets to high youll get diabetes A solution thats hypotonic, solutes not showed Osmosis makes that cell, swell and explode Biology The best science youll agree A biologist I will be Cahill has made me see Each part of your body a different structure has These structures lead to functions, complex functions such as The Axon Sodium Channels, keep this signal goin Neurotransmitters through the synapse my rap keeps flowin Fluid mosaic cell membrane cant get by it Only with transport proteins should you try it Unless it takes you through endocytosis Youre to big for diffusion you shoulda known this Ribosomes nake proteins you ...
Falsifying Phylogeny II: Evolutionary Law This is the 2nd in a short series of [hopefully] educational videos intended to explain the process and purpose of systematic phylogenetic classification, as well as the applications and implications that has in evolutionary biology.