How Cells Divide and How Chemotherapy Works A cell is the functional basic unit of life, often called the building block of life. Humans have about 100 trillion cells. You body is constantly producing new cells. In this program, we will discuss how cells divide, how chemotherapy affects cells that are dividing, and how chemotherapy affects cancer cells. When a normal cell divides, it goes through a series of steps, including a duplication of its DNA, which contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of living organisms. The end result of the cell division is the formation of two identical daughter cells. Let's begin to explore how this process happens. The cell goes through many distinct steps as it divides. After a cell's initial formation, it goes into an inactive resting phase called G zero. The cell then grows larger in size and makes proteins. These are important for the next step. This phase is called G1. The cell creates two copies of its DNA in preparation for dividing. This is called the S phase. After a second growth phase called G2, the cell continues to grow and make more proteins for the final stage. The cell finally splits into two cells and the two copies of DNA are distributed equally between the two daughter cells. This is called the M phase or mitosis. This completes the process of cell division. In normal cells, there are checkpoints at every stage of this process to make sure that cells grow and divide in a regulated way. In cancer cells, these checkpoints are ...
Penn State Materials Science and Engineering An overview of Penn State Materials Science and Engineering - an international leader in materials education and research.
REMOVING CANCER CELLS FROM CIRCULATION USING MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES In this short video we demonstrate the capture of circulating tumor cells using magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with ligands selective for surface receptors that are highly expressed by cancer cells. The technology we are developing provides solutions to a number of problems. By reducing malignant cell titer using magnetic filtration we can prevent the continual metastatic spread of cancers thereby stabilizing the disease. Chemo therapy is a current standard of care for treating several forms of cancers that metastasize. However, its efficacy is often compromised by off-target delivery, drug tolerances, secondary malignancies, and intolerable side effects. Our technology has the potential to alleviate many of the shortcomings associated with chemo therapeutics. By mechanistically removing malignant cells we can increase longevity while improving quality of life. The fundamental science we are developing is not only applicable to ovarian cancer. It is feasible that similar approaches can be used to treat other metastatic or blood borne cancers. It is also conceivable that the approach can be used to filter viruses or other pathogens from bodily fluids. We are currently seeking additional funding to continue our research. Please visit www.sub- for more information.
5.3 Cancer and Chemotherapy 1 Get the notes: Thelecture notes for this and all numbered lectures are available at , keyword PHRM203 or just follow the link. The notes do NOT include Exam Reviews, Paramedic Pharm, Heart Sounds, or Chest Tubes.
FROM ENGLISH TO SPANISH = Antibiotics and chemotherapeutics for dermatological use
Understanding Your Cancer - Part 1 This video animation explains the 11 key factors that lead to the growth and spread of cancerous cells inside the human body. Envita Medical Centers has been treating patients based on these 11 factors for over a decade. If you or anyone you may know has been diagnosed with cancer, find out how you can benefit from Envita's Comprehensive Smart Oncology Program. For a more in-depth discussion of Cancer and its treatment, watch our webinars on . We will walk you through the strategies and explain our unique approach to treatment. As we always say at Envita, the best prescription is education! Visit us at Let us take you through our PPMR preliminary personalized medical review using our international medical team, to learn more call 1-866-830-4576.
Podcast : Engineering Cancer Drug Delivery 7/22/2011 - Dr. Sangeeta Bhatia from MIT describes how her team has improved delivery of chemotherapeutics to tumors by linking nanoparticles to our body's own blood clotting system.
Pharmacogenomics - The Future View the full Interactive Tutorial at: Currently, pharmacogenetic testing prior to drug use is largely limited to specialised drugs such as chemotherapeutics, where selecting the optimal drug for treatment can have a major impact on both cost and prognosis, making the inconvenience and expense of testing worthwhile. Although pharmacogenetic testing could theoretically be used for the more common drugs, such as antidepressants, the benefits are less obvious. However, an increasing understanding of the multiple genetic influences on drug action, combined with new technologies that may reduce testing costs, could make it a possibility, especially if a patient could be assessed for their pharmacogenetic profile as part of routine medical assessment and the information stored for future use. This sort of personalised medicine is a long way in the future, but potential forerunners of broader pharmacogenetic tests are already emerging. Pharmacogenetics can only enhance, and never replace the need for proper clinical management, since clinicians and pharmacists must also consider the wide range of non-genetic influences on drug function when selecting the ideal medication for a given patient and condition. Even in situations where the use of pharmacogenetic testing may prevent serious adverse reactions, the clinical utility of such testing is presently contended, with some clinicians arguing that suitably careful scrutiny of patients should allow the rapid ...
needles plastic Plastic Hub Needles are available with a unique point design and a luer lock hub promotes easy penetration and maximum life for the port septum. You will find a complete range of Huber Needles, straight or curved at 90°. It is their special design that makes for easy insertion and single use. These are usually made of brass and are plated with nickel while some are made from stainless steel hubs too. a There are actually two components , a plastic or metal connector and a stainless steel tube section, that is connected to the hub. Needles must be sealed in the area connecting the hub to the tubing portion. All needles are tested for leaks and need to pass a strict 45 psi water pressure test. The plastic hub needles are categorized as per the different lengths: These top quality disposable needles make a clean puncture into the septum due to precise grinding. There is a bevel mark for the best possible position for injection. The plastic hub contains 100 needles and are are non-siliconized to minimize "back out". Specially designed for easy insertion into vascular access device and single use, they are commonly used for bolus injections of chemotherapeutics agents, pain control drugs, blood products and parenteral nutrition. visit for more information
IDH Mutations: Oncometabolite Deregulation of Epigenetic Remodeling IDH Mutations: Oncometabolite Deregulation of Epigenetic Remodeling Air date: Wednesday, June 13, 2012, 3:00:00 PM Timedisplayed is Eastern Time, Washington DC Local Category: Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Description: Craig Thompson became the President and Chief Executive Officer of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center - the world's oldest and largest private institution devoted to cancer prevention, treatment, research, and education - in November 2010. Dr. Thompson is a board-certified internist and medical oncologist with extensive research experience in cancer, immunology, and translational medicine. To date, Dr. Thompson has published more than 350 peer-reviewed m***cripts and more than 85 reviews. Currently, his laboratory undertakes basic research in the fields of cancer biology and immunology. His laboratory has recently contributed to the resurgent interest in cancer cell metabolism and is developing translational therapies to exploit the metabolic addictions exhibited by cancer cells. Dr. Thompson is a member of the Institute of Medicine, the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Medical Advisory Board of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. The NIH Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series includes weekly scientific talks by some of the top researchers in the biomedical sciences worldwide. For more information, visit: The NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series Author: Dr. Craig B. Thompson, Memorial Sloan ...
Oral Insulin - Syracuse University Researchers Make Diabetes Breakthrough See the official research here: www-che.syr.edu Amanda Petrus Robert Doyle Utilizing vitamin B12 to deliver proteins orally or to target metallo-probes/chemotherapeutics to tumor cells. Hypothesis: The vitamin B12 uptake pathway can be adopted to deliver clinically relevant doses of peptides/proteins orally. Mammals have a highly efficient uptake and transport mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) for the absorption and cellular uptake of the vitamin B12 molecule (~1350 Da). The proposed delivery system would take advantage of this natural intrinsic factor (IF) mediated uptake mechanism to overcome the two major hurdles to peptide delivery, namely GIT proteolysis and transcytoses of the enterocyte . Vitamin B12 first binds to haptocorrin, a salivary enzyme that can protect and transport B12 through the stomach and into the small intestine (see Figure 2). The B12 then binds to IF and proceeds down the small intestine where the complex binds to the IF receptor on the ileum wall. The IF-B12 receptor complex then undergoes endocytosis, releasing B12 into the blood serum where it is bound to transcobalamin II (TCII). Doyle, RP; Petrus, AK; Allis, DG; Smith, RP; Fairchild, TJ Exploring the Implications of Vitamin B12 Conjugation to Insulin on Insulin Receptor Binding. ChemMedChem 2009, 4, 421-426.
FROM ENGLISH TO GERMAN = Antibiotics and chemotherapeutics for dermatological use
Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering Air date: Wednesday, September 28, 2011, 3:00:00 PM Timedisplayed is Eastern Time, Washington DC Local Category: Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Description: Recent developments in biomaterials technology have enabled the production of biodegradable, cytocompatible tissue engineering scaffolds that can be tailored with appropriate mechanical and biological signals to restore damaged tissue in specific sites in the body. For example, our laboratory has developed a variety of biodegradable polymers for the controlled delivery of biologically active agents and/or progenitor stem cell populations to promote regeneration of tissues such as bone and cartilage. Further, we have explored the application of bioreactor culture of progenitor cell populations to produce extracellular matrix constructs containing biologically active signals to direct cellular differentiation and tissue formation. Ongoing research in collaboration with clinical colleagues also involves the development of materials-based approaches for application in strategies for bone regeneration, with a vision for rapid clinical translation. This talk will present examples of biomaterials from our laboratory to illustrate recent advances in tailored biomaterials-based approaches for bone and cartilage tissue engineering. The NIH Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series includes weekly scientific talks by some of the top researchers in the biomedical sciences worldwide. For more information, visit: The NIH Director's ...
The Mechanism of Cisplatin (New -HD) Cisplatin is in a class of drugs known as platinum-containing compounds used to treat various types of cancers including metastatic testicular and ovarian tumors. The molecule was first discovered in 1845, but did not receive FDA approval until 1978. Today it is known as the "penicillin of cancer drugs," because it is so effective for many different cancers. There are three key players involved in Cisplatin's mechanism: (1) Cisplatin, (2) DNA (3) and an HMG Protein. Most Cisplatin enters the body through active transport, but some molecules are passively defused through the cell membrane. Once in the nucleus, Cisplatin can form an adduct with two consecutive guanine bases within a strand of DNA. The molecule loses its chlorine atoms in exchange for the nitrogen atoms of the target guanines. Cisplatin can bond more tightly with nitrogen because nitrogen balances the platinum charge more effectively than chlorine. It is this adduct-induced DNA bend that allows binding of proteins which contain the high mobility group, HMG domain. Once the protein is bound to the DNA, it inserts a wedge-like phenyl group of phenylalanine 37 into the widened minor groove created by the bend. The tightly bound HMG protein causes destacking of the nucleotide bases, resulting in the DNA helix becoming kinked. In this way, Cisplatin can be thought of as a monkey wrench in the DNA repair system. With the HMG protein bound to the DNA, the modified strand is not repaired properly and so the cell ...
Value of binding kinetics in drug discovery A scientist's view on the importance of binding kinetics in the development of chemotherapeutics. Biacore™ T200 is used to generate qualitative and quantitative interaction data to confirm binding between chemotherapeutic nanoparticles and the target receptor, crucial information for understanding of the mechanism of action.
J. Michael Bishop (UCSF) Part 3: The cancer genome and therapeutics Bishop expands on this theme in part 3 where he describes experiments to find drugs that exploit vulnerabilities created by cancer genes, utilizing a genetic strategy known as "synthetic lethality."
J. Michael Bishop (UCSF) Part 2: The cancer genome: Challenge and promise In part 2 of his lecture, Bishop describes how the sequencing of cancer genomes will advance the study and management of cancer on various fronts, including the discovery of causes, the improvement of early detection, the prediction of outcome and the development of new therapeutics. He stresses the promise of designing therapeutics that can be targeted to those patients most likely to benefit from these drugs.
Dr. George Watts uses Ion PGM for homebrew amplicon sequencing project using FFPE Dr. George Watts, Co-Director of the Genomics Shared Service at the University of Arizona Cancer Center, discusses a targeted sequencing project using homebrew amplicon sequencing and the advantages of using Ion AmpliSeq targeted enrichment solutions. He presents data from his AACR 2012 poster on a melanoma sequencing project, his first project using Ion PGM Sequencer. The retrospective study, demonstrated that amplicon sequencing of DNA from FFPE tissue on Ion PGM sequencer successfully identified mutations. The project came to Dr. Watts through an AAC client that wanted to understand how a BRAF signaling mutation affected response to Dacarbazine versus Abraxane, both cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. The researcher was going to ***yze samples from a previous study using immunohistochemistry. Instead, Dr. Watts suggested that by sequencing the samples on the Ion PGM sequencer he could target not only BRAF, but also NRAS and KIT regions--all for the same price as ***yzing just BRAF with immunohistochemistry.
Grant to fund research into cancer-fighting technology Penn State College of Medicine has received a $1 million grant from the PA Department of Health's CURE program. At the acceptance of this grant, Dr. Mark Kester explains how the use of nano-technology and the advancement of personalized medicine may lead to better cancer-fighting therapies. Kester's research that was funded involves breast cancer and targeting a specific mutated protein found in the cancer cells.
Atlantic Salmon - Closed Containment This video features some of the approximately 20 tons of Atlantic salmon that are currently growing in land-based closed-containment systems at the Conservation Fund Freshwater Institute (TCFFI) in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. Mean size of the best performing group is 4 kg, but some females are over 6 kg. All of these large salmon are just 24-months post-hatch and have grown their entire life in freshwater (not sal***er) with a hardness of 280 mg/L as CaCO3. This video was shot in a 150 m3 culture tank; TCFFI has five other 10 m3 tanks and six 5 m3 tanks full of large Atlantic salmon. TCFFI is using these systems and fish to study how the closed-containment environment influences the salmon's performance, health, and welfare at densities up to 80 kg/m3. Water quality is optimized and temperature ranges from 13-17ºC (warmest in summer). Barriers are in place to prevent salmon from escaping and to exclude the entry of obligate fish pathogens. Fish health has been exceptional and no antibiotics, pesticides, vaccines, or strong chemotherapeutics (eg, formalin) have been required. This research is supported by a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
TEDxNicosia Myrtani Pieri Myrtani Pieri completed her PhD in Molecular Biology at the University of Oxford, UK and is now doing research at the university of Cyprus trying to understand how particular mutations being carried by Cypriots cause inherited diseases. During her PhD she tried to add to the fight against cancer by aiming at making particular chemotherapeutic drugs attack only the cancerous cells and not the healthy ones. She believes that biology and the way the human body functions (and dysfunctions sometimes) is magical! And we can learn from it, we can be inspired from it, because we do carry amazing wisdom in our thousands of years of evolution. Myrtani took part in the International competition FAMELAB 2011 in England with the subject "How deep is the love" where she presented the ole of the immune system during pregnancy and won the first award, winning it for Cyprus among fif*** countries aroud the world. Life has found a way to try and understand itself and the Universe: us, human beings! Our world is full of mysteries. We are a mystery. Science is the way to try to understand the mysteries of the world and our existence. So let's do it! In this TEDxNicosia, Molecular Biologist Myrtani Pieri is urging us to delve deep into the molecular mechanisms that characterize our existence only to be faced with hidden beauty, remarkable magic, love and care at the molecular level. Science provides answers to mysteries often even more magical than the mysteries themselves! In thespirit of ...
How do cancer cells behave differently from healthy ones? - George Zaidan View full lesson: How do cancer cells grow? How does chemotherapy fight cancer (and cause negative side effects)? The answers lie in cell division. George Zaidan explains how rapid cell division is cancer's "strength" -- and also its weakness. Lesson by George Zaidan, animation by TED-Ed.
WT Professor Researches Cancer and Chemotherapeutic Agents KVII-TV Amarillo Pronews 7 Report By Kyndel Lee-Bates In hopes of eliminating the negative side effects of cancer medications, WTAMU Assistant Professor of Biochemistry Dr. David Kahn has spent years researching the delivery of liposomal-based chemotherapeutics.
(2/3) The light of evolution: What would be lost What good is evolution? Do we really need it? Are there any applications for it? Does it have any bearing on human health? Why would a doctor or engineer or teacher or politician need to understand it, beyond the need to satisfy an educational directive? Does it really affect our lives? Useful or interesting links: Understanding Evolution (basic material) evolution.berkeley.edu Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History (fantastic videos) www.peabody.yale.edu "Nothing Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution" by Theodosius Dobzhansky, 1973 Francisco Ayala debate with William Lane Craig Journal articles for further reading: Free full-text article on XMRV's role in prostate tumor Free full-text "Genomics meets HIV-1" on HIV vaccine targets enabled by genomic research m.nih.gov How HIV-1 research is being used to treat FIV in cats Selective Sweeps in the Human Genome: A Starting Point for Identifying Genetic Differences Between Modern Humans and Chimpanzees Quantitative Trait Loci mapping of crops
Lec 31 | MIT 7.012 Introduction to Biology, Fall 2004 Molecular Medicine 1 (Prof. Robert A. Weinberg) View the complete course: ocw.mit.edu License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at ocw.mit.edu More courses at ocw.mit.edu