Presynaptic Calcium Transient in Squid Giant Synapse Please visit the Smithlab web site (smithlab.stanford.edu) for more information about this movie.
Catching Calcium Waves Could Provide Alzheimer's Insights New insights on what causes Alzheimers disease could arise from a recent discovery made by bioengineers from the University of California, San Diego. The finding concerns the infamous amyloid beta peptides (Aβ)—fragments of which form plaques thought to play a role in Alzheimers disease. The bioengineers found that amyloid beta peptides (Aβ) spontaneously trigger calcium waves in purified cultures of astrocyte cells extracted from the cortex region of rat brains and grown in the lab. These calcium waves could be relevant for understanding the origin of Alzheimers disease. The accumulation of Amyloid beta fragments and sustained disruption of the calcium balance within cells are leading hypotheses for what causes Alzheimers disease.
Napoleon Astrocyte From the Yale INP's retreat in 2006.
Malignant Brain Tumors and Cordless Phones , Bluetube Headset Protection Bluetube Headset Cordless Phones Brain Tumors Cancer researchers in Sweden found strong links between malignant brain tumors and using cordless phones, which are comparable to those for using mobile phones . The cancer research team led by Lennart Hardell at the University of Orebro showed that people who have used mobile phones or cordless phones for more than 2 000 h are all at greatly increased risks of getting malignant brain tumours. The odds of getting malignant brain tumours compared with those who have never used these phones - expressed as odds ratio, OR was 5.9 times for ***ogue mobile phones (older type of mobile phones), 3.7 tines for digital mobile phones and 2.3 times for cordless phones. (OR of 1 indicates no increased risk compared to non-users; OR1 indicates decreased risk; and OR1 indicates increased risk.) For all malignant brain tumours in people who have used the phones for more than ten years, the ORs were 3.0 and 2.8 for ***ogue and digital mobile phones respectively, and 3.3 for cordless phones. For high-grade astrocytomas (malignant tumour of the astrocyte, a glial cell), the corresponding ORs increased further to 3.7, 3.8, and 3.9 respectively. The risk of malignant brain tumours is increased for any phone use, regardless of how many years or hours of use. The ORs for ***ogue and digital mobile phones were 1.5 and 1.3 respectively, and for cordless phone, 1.3.
Neurons and Astrocytes: The Plot Thickens Astrocytes have become a hot research topic as evidence mounts suggesting that astrocytes in the brains cortex do more than provide support to neurons. In this video, UC San Diego bioengineering Ph.D. student Chris MacDonald describes a fluorescent image of neurons (green) and astrocytes (red) grown in culture.
Worm-like organisms in calcein-loaded astrocytes.avi Look for the worm-like organisms wiggling below the astrocyte on the top right. If you scan the video a bit more you will fine more wiggling organisms in the other cells as well.
Study Glial Cell Heterogeneity Influence on Axon Growth Using a New Coculture Method Watch video protocols on JoVE - . Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE) is a scientific journal publishing video articles on biological experiments filmed at leading research institutions. JoVE is the first video journal indexed in PubMed. To see more of this protocol go to Study Glial Cell Heterogeneity Influence on Axon Growth Using a New Coculture Method This video protocol was filmed in collaboration with UCLA and Fourth Military Medical University. In the central nervous system of all mammals, severed axons after injury are unable to regenerate to their original targets and functional recovery is very poor 1. The failure of axon regeneration is a combined result of several factors including the hostile glial cell environment, inhibitory myelin related molecules and decreased intrinsic neuron regenerative capacity 2. Astrocytes are the most predominant glial cell type in central nervous system and play important role in axon functions under physiology and pathology conditions 3. Contrast to the homologous oligodendrocytes, astrocytes are a heterogeneous cell population composed by different astrocyte subpopulations with diverse morphologies and gene expression 4. The functional significance of this heterogeneity, such as their influences on axon growth, is largely unknown. To study the glial cell, especially the function of astrocyte heterogeneity in neuron behavior, we established a new method by co-culturing high purified dorsal root ...
Astrocytic Ca waves in hippocampal slice Please see smithlab.stanford.edu for more information and to download higher-quality movie files.
Onward Get all our music for free download on myspace and facebook and add us as a friend. Music by Ryan Walters Vocals by Ian Hudson Vocals recorded and mixed by Ryan T Johnson at Astrocyte Studios Mastering by Ryan T Johnson at Astrocyte Studios Album Art by Damon Graham
Orifice Get all our music for free download on myspace and facebook and add us as a friend. Music by Ryan Walters Vocals by Ian Hudson Vocals recorded and mixed by Ryan T Johnson at Astrocyte Studios Mastering by Ryan T Johnson at Astrocyte Studios Album Art by Damon Graham
Waltz through hippocampal neuropil Reconstruction of a block of hippocampus from a rat approximately 5 micrometers on a side from serial section transmission electron microscopy in the lab of Kristen Harris at the University of Texas at Austin in collaboration with Terry Sejnowski at the Salk Institute and Mary Kennedy at Caltech. Josef Spacek, Daniel Keller, Varun Chaturvedi, Chandrajit Bajaj, Justin Kinney and Tom Bartol made major contributions to the reconstruction and the video. For more reconstructions: Links to laboratories: cnl.salk.edu synapses.clm.utexas.edu www.its.caltech.edu www.cs.utexas.edu synapses.clm.utexas.edu
Plaques Cause Increases in Calcium in the Brain (3 of 3) Doctor Brian Bacskai explaine that senile plaques lead to an increase in resting calcium in astrocytes in the entire brain.
Part 4 - Glial Cells This is Part 4 of a new series on the human nervous system. The Part 4 video will introduce glial cells; in Part 5 we will talk about neural growth and regeneration. See my channel for more tutorials on physiology and related subjects.
Stimulus-induced astrocytic Ca waves in hippocampal slice Please see smithlab.stanford.edu for more information and to download higher-quality movie files.
Glutamate-induced Ca wave in isolated astrocyte in culture Please see smithlab.stanford.edu for more information and to download higher-quality movie files.
Cryopreservation of Cortical Tissue Blocks for the Generation of Highly Enriched Neuronal Cultures Watch video protocols on JoVE - . Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE) is a scientific journal publishing video articles on biological experiments filmed at leading research institutions. JoVE is the first video journal indexed in PubMed. To see more of this protocol go to Cryopreservation of Cortical Tissue Blocks for the Generation of Highly Enriched Neuronal Cultures This video protocol was filmed at the University of California-Irvine. In this study, we outline a standardized protocol for the successful cryopreservation and thawing of cortical brain tissue blocks to generate highly enriched neuronal cultures. For this protocol the freezing medium used is 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) diluted in Hank's Buffered Salt Solution (HBSS). Blocks of cortical tissue are transferred to cryovials containing the freezing medium and slowly frozen at -1°C/min in a rate-controlled freezing container. Post-thaw processing and dissociation of frozen tissue blocks consistently produced neuronal-enriched cultures which exhibited rapid neuritic growth during the first 5 days in culture and significant expansion of the neuronal network within 10 days. Immunocytochemical staining with the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the neuronal marker beta-tubulin class III, revealed high numbers of neurons and astrocytes in the cultures. Generation of neural precursor cell cultures after tissue block dissociation resulted in rapidly expanding ...
Structured illumination of Neuronal Cells A 3D rendering from a structured illumination (OMX) microscope of neuronal cells. www.cbst.ucdavis.edu http
The Secret Life of Microglia URMC neurologists discuss their research findings about the role of microglia brain cells.
Glutamate-induced Ca wave in high-density astrocyte culture Please see smithlab.stanford.edu for more information and to download higher-quality movie files.
Bergmann glia calcium wave in vivo Bergmann glia (a major type of astrocyte in the cerebellum) respond to stimuli with calcium elevations. In the intact brain such calcium signals can be restricted to individual astrocytic processes and sometimes spread between many via the release of ATP and purinergic receptor-dependent signaling. Shown here is an optical section of the intact cerebellum of a rat showing in pseudocolor calcium elevations spreading between many Bergmann glia processes. These events occurr spontaneously in the anesthetized rat and who knows in your brain while you are watching this. Full reference for these data: PNAS March 3, 2009 vol. 106 no. 9 3496-3501
Glutamate-induced Ca wave in low-density astrocyte culture Please see smithlab.stanford.edu for more information and to download higher-quality movie files.